A plan car insurance basingstoke council
- Development and deployment
- Wartime destruction
- Initial post-war events
- Soviet negotiations
- Marshall's speech
- Rejection by the Soviets
- Passage in Congress
- Loans and grants
- Effects and legacy
- Areas without the Plan
- In popular culture
- See also
- Further reading
- External links
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We are often asked who uses our website? We know just how important real targeted internet advertising is to our clients, especially now in times of uncertainty in the construction industry.
Below is a just a small example of the users of The Construction Index website.
|(ucs plant ltd)rand group ltd|
|4d books building informatics ltd.|
|a j access platforms ltd|
|a mclay & company ltd|
|a multi-disciplinary design company|
|aaf - ltd|
|aap consulting limited|
|ab automotive electronics ltd|
|ab sandvik information systems|
|abacus lighting ltd|
|abb offshore systems ltd|
|abbey development limited|
|abbey manor group ltd|
|abbey national treasury services|
|abc international bank plc|
|aberdeen city council 2|
|aberdeen harbour board|
|abloy security limited|
|abn*amro services co. inc.|
|abna ltd ( abn )|
|absolute health & safety solutions|
|ac supply ltd|
|accenture - thames water|
|access direct site sevices ltd|
|access door systems limited|
|acclaim handling ltd|
|acco europe plc|
|acheson & glover ltd|
|acorn industrial services ltd|
|acorn insulation ltd|
|acp (concrete) limited|
|actimax - ridgemond training|
|actimax plc - jf nott ltd|
|action for employment ltd|
|acw technology limited|
|adcock refrigeration ltd|
|advance alchemy group ltd|
|advanced business equipment ltd|
|advanced computer services ltd - uk drainage network|
|advanced systems consultancy group|
|advansa polyester ltd|
|ae yates trenchless solutions|
|aedas management services|
|aes kilroot power|
|agd equipment limited|
|aggregated telecom ltd|
|agi group ltd|
|agip (uk) ltd|
|ahlmark shipping (uk) ltd|
|aim composites ltd|
|aims group services ltd|
|aintree raicecourse company ltd|
|air charter service plc|
|air management systems ltd|
|airedale springs ltd|
|airport strategy ltd|
|airtek safety ltd|
|airtube conveyors ltd|
|alan wood partnership|
|alard electrical ltd|
|albion design & fabrication limited|
|aldwyck housing association|
|alexander construction supplies ltd|
|alexander dennis ltd|
|alfa chemicals ltd|
|alfa laval companies worldwide|
|alfred mcalpine infrastructure services|
|alfred mcalpine plc|
|algorithmics uk limited p|
|allan murray architects|
|allan water developments ltd|
|allen & hanel|
|allen and overy|
|allen and york|
|allen fencing office lan|
|allford hall ltd|
|allfour gardens ltd|
|alliance & leicester plc|
|allied carpets group plc|
|allies and morrison|
|allsigns group ltd|
|alsamex products ltd|
|alternative networks - bank mandiri europe ltd|
|alternative networks - laser life ta vitesse plc|
|alternative networks ltd - ele international ltd|
|alternative networks-askam construction ltd|
|amber valley borough council|
|amd contract services|
|amec oil & gas|
|amec oil & gas earth & environmental|
|america online inc|
|american express europe ltd|
|amey services ltd|
|ami- the advance group|
|amicus the union|
|amir power transmissions limited|
|ammann equipment ltd|
|anders elite ltd|
|anderson construction ltd|
|andreas menzies associates (amanet)|
|andrew firebrace partnership|
|andrews & arnold ltd|
|anglesey county council|
|anglia polytechnic university|
|anglia vale medical ltd|
|anglian windows ltd|
|anglo american services|
|anglo holt construction ltd|
|anglo irish bank|
|annington management ltd|
|ansa group ltd|
|antagrade electrical ltd|
|anthony green spencer blenh office lan|
|anthony morris solicitors|
|antigo breakers ltd|
|antilles crossing international|
|antrim borough council|
|anwyl construction co ltd|
|aon group limited|
|apoca parking uk ltd|
|apollo london limited|
|apollo plant ltd|
|applecross developments (edinburgh) ltd|
|appleyards chartered surveyors|
|aptuit (edinburgh) ltd|
|aqua group ltd|
|ar werth limited|
|aragon housing association|
|arcadia group ltd|
|arcadia petroleum almack house|
|arcadis geraghty & miller international|
|archimedes development ltd|
|architectural design house|
|architecture central worksop llp|
|ardex uk ltd|
|argyll insurance holdings ltd|
|armour construction consultants|
|armstrong world industries inc.|
|army information systems command-pentagon|
|arnold clark automobiles|
|arsenal football club plc|
|artesian sekforde ltd|
|asco uk limited|
|ashfield district council|
|ashridge construction ltd|
|ashridge management college|
|assael architecture ltd|
|assets technologies ltd|
|associated british ports|
|associated british ports|
|associated british ports|
|associated newspapers ltd|
|associated octel co|
|association of consulting engineers|
|asw holdings plc|
|atlantech online inc.|
|atlantic umbrella company ltd|
|atlas copco uk holdings ltd|
|atlas core network systems|
|atlas marine contractors ltd|
|atradius credit insurance|
|att idc london|
|audience systems ltd|
|audit partnership limited|
|audley travel group ltd|
|aurora technologies ltd - skerrltt ltd|
|austin reynolds ltd|
|austrian trade commision|
|automated packaging systems limited|
|automated system services ltd|
|avon rubber plc|
|awdry bailey & douglas legal services|
|axa technology services france gie|
|axa technology services uk ltd.|
|axcent services ltd|
|axima building services ltd|
|axis mason ltd ip assignment|
|axson uk ltd (cb8 7au)|
|aylesbury training group|
|ayrshire metal products plc|
|ayscough travel ltd|
|azzurri communications ltd|
|b & b group limited|
|b & q plc|
|b j champion contractors ltd|
|babcock international ltd|
|babergh district council|
|bachy soletanche limited|
|bactec international ltd|
|badekoenig deutschland gmbh|
|baggaley & jenkins ltd|
|bailey garner eltham|
|bailhache labesse group - jersey|
|bain and company|
|baker & mckenzie solicitors|
|baker tilly (london)|
|balfour beatty ashwood way|
|balfour beatty civil engineering ltd|
|balfour beatty construction haden young jv ltd|
|balfour beatty fairoaks airport|
|balfour beatty power networks|
|balfour beatty rail projects|
|balfour kilpatrick ltd|
|ballymore properties ltd|
|balmoral group ltd|
|baltimore gas & electric company|
|bancafe international bank|
|bank of america|
|bank of england|
|bank of ireland|
|bank of new york europe|
|bannatyne fitness limited|
|banner plant ltd|
|bannerman johnstone maclay|
|barbara weiss architects ltd|
|barclays bank plc.|
|barhale construction ltd|
|barking and dagenham|
|barnes construction ltd|
|barret lloyd davis assoiates|
|barrett steel buildings ltd|
|barter hill partnership ltd|
|bartlett & co. limited|
|barton petroleum ltd|
|barton willmore partnership|
|bas liftco ltd|
|base connections ltd|
|basepoint properties limited|
|basf it services gmbh ludwigshafen|
|basingstoke and deane borough council|
|baxter healthcare corporation|
|bbk accountants ltd|
|bbont wildlife trust (40958)|
|bc international ltd|
|be aerospace inc.|
|bechtel holdings ltd|
|beck & pollitzer engineering ltd|
|beckett rankine ltd|
|bedfordshire county council|
|bedfordshire school nats|
|belfast city council|
|belfast education and library board|
|bell & scott solicitors|
|bell group uk|
|bell group uk ltd|
|bell nexxia (hse)|
|ben sherman group ltd|
|benefoot uk ltd|
|beresford blake thomas|
|berkeley burke group|
|bernard engle architects|
|bernard matthews ltd|
|bertram books ltd|
|bespak europe ltd|
|bespoke mould solutions limited|
|bethell group plc|
|bett brothers plc|
|betts uk ltd.|
|bettys & taylors of harrogate ltd|
|bevan ashford lan|
|bewley homes plc|
|bexley london borough|
|beyond the network america inc.|
|bg controls ltd|
|bharat forge ltd.|
|bibby line ltd|
|biffa waste services ltd|
|bilfinger berger uk ltd|
|binns fencing ltd|
|bioquell (uk) ltd|
|birmingham city council - service birmingham ltd|
|birmingham international airport ltd|
|birse construction ltd|
|birse metro ltd|
|biwater international ltd|
|bjd group ltd|
|black & decker|
|black & veatch|
|black and veatch ltd|
|black diamond films ltd|
|blackburn and darwen borough council|
|blacks leisure group plc|
|blackwell science limited|
|blaenau gwent county borough council|
|blair castle estate limited|
|blake lapthorn solicitors|
|blast log ltd|
|bloomberg financial market|
|blustin heath design ltd|
|blyth and blyth leased line|
|blyth harbour commission|
|bnp paribas lease group|
|body shop int plc|
|bodycote heat treatment ltd|
|bogoso gold mines|
|boi group treasury|
|boise cascade llc|
|bolton carpets & uph. ltd|
|bolton priestley ltd|
|borden ladner gervais llp|
|borough of pendle council|
|boston mayflower ltd|
|bourne leisure limited|
|bournemouth & west hampshire water|
|bournemouth borough council|
|bournemouth borough council|
|bovis homes group plc|
|bovis lend lease ltd|
|bovis lend lease ltd|
|bovis lend lease ltd|
|bowmer & kirkland|
|boxall sayer ltd|
|boyes turner assignment|
|bp alternative energy international|
|bp uk plc|
|bp uk plc|
|brackett green limited|
|bracknell forest borough council|
|bradford & sons ltd|
|bradford metropolitan district council|
|brandon hire limited|
|breakwater it limited|
|breathe interiors ltd|
|brechin tindall oatts|
|brentwood borough council|
|brett martin ltd|
|brewin dolphin securities limited|
|brewing research international|
|breyer group plc|
|brian hyde ltd|
|brick lane backbone and core servics|
|bridge contract services ltd|
|bridgehead container services ltd|
|bridgend county borough council|
|bridgeway consulting limited|
|bridgewell london lan|
|bridgnorth district council|
|brigade electronics plc|
|briggs & forester|
|briggs roofing & cladding ltd|
|bright house networks - cfl division|
|brighton and hove unitary authority|
|brighton media centre|
|brightstar associates ltd.|
|brightview dynamic adsl pools|
|brightview group limited|
|brink s emea s.a.s|
|bristol myers squibb pharmaceutical research institute|
|bristol street garratts green nat|
|bristow and sutor|
|britania crest recycling ltd|
|britannia operator ltd|
|britannic technologies ltd managed broadband adsl assignment|
|britax aircraft interiors uk ltd|
|britax pmg limited|
|british airports authority|
|british airways plc|
|british american racing|
|british broadcasting corporation|
|british cement association|
|british energy group plc|
|british gas hydrocarbons resources|
|british nuclear fuels plc|
|british precast concrete federation ltd|
|british refugee council-1|
|british sky broadcasting ltd.|
|british tourist authority|
|british trust for ornithology|
|britspace modular buildings ltd|
|britvic soft drinks ltd|
|brodie plant goddard|
|brookes batchellor llp|
|brooks & bentley ltd|
|brooks chartered surveyors|
|brooks forgings ltd|
|broome & wellington|
|brown knight & truscott|
|browne jacobsen solicitors|
|browne smith baker|
|brownhill hayward brown|
|browns builders merchants limited|
|broxbourne borough council|
|broxtowe borough council|
|bruce shaw group|
|brunel university network|
|brunner mond (uk)|
|bryden wood associates|
|bryen & langley limited|
|bt inet ltd|
|btcs bentley jennison|
|btcs nynet ltd|
|btgs barclays bank|
|btss kent county council|
|buckingham group contracting ltd|
|buckingham securities holdings plc|
|buckingham securities holdings plc|
|buckinghamshire county council|
|buckinghamshire county council|
|buckinghamshire county council|
|bucksnet services ltd|
|buhler group ltd|
|building & plumbing supplies ltd|
|building civil solutions ltd|
|building design partnership|
|building design partnership|
|building research establishment network|
|bulgarian telecommunications company plc.|
|bunce (ashbury) ltd|
|burgess architectural products|
|burgis & bullock leam|
|burnbank dataconnect ltd|
|burns carlton plc|
|burnt tree group ltd|
|buschow henley ltd|
|business link gloucestershire|
|business link west yorkshire|
|butler & young limited|
|buxted construction limited|
|bvg airflo group plc|
|bwb partnership ltd lan|
|bwf offermann schmid & co. kg|
|by design plc|
|bytes technology group ltd|
|bywaters leyton ltd|
|c and c supplies collinson ltd|
|c brandauer & co ltd|
|c j oshea and co ltd|
|c p pharmaceuticals plc|
|c spenser ltd|
|cabin centre limited|
|cadbury schweppes plc|
|cadbury schweppes plc|
|cadence design systems gmbh|
|caerphilly county borough council|
|cai international network|
|calibre uk ltd|
|calidore computer systems ltd|
|calidus engineering limited|
|camargue (london) ltd|
|cambridgeshire county council|
|cambridgeshire fire and rescue|
|camelot group plc|
|camera de comert si industrie a municipiului bucuresti|
|cameron black ltd|
|camilleri roofing supplies ltd|
|can geotechnical ltd|
|can offshore limited|
|canadian general-tower limited|
|canon europa n.v.|
|canongate properties ltd|
|cantv servicios venezuela|
|cap gemini uk plc|
|cape industrial services|
|capgemini sverige ab|
|capgemini uk plc|
|capita business services ltd|
|capital & regional|
|capital enterprise centres|
|capital enterprise centres|
|capital enterprise centres chelmsford|
|capital enterprise centres ltd|
|capital incentives ltd|
|capital servicing co. ltd.|
|car care plan|
|cardiff city council|
|cardiff county council|
|cardiff truck & van centre ltd|
|cardonald college is an fe college in glasgow|
|care (uk) plc|
|care capital ip assignment|
|career management consultants limited|
|career wales cardiff & vale|
|carey olsen group|
|cargill dow bv|
|caribbean cable communications|
|cariverona banca spa|
|carl bro ltd|
|carlisle civic centre|
|carlisle group plc|
|carlton hill student internet connectivity|
|carmarthenshire county council|
|carmichael uk limited|
|carnegie systems management|
|carousel logistics ltd|
|carphone warehouse broadband services|
|carphone warehouse ltd (the)|
|carrick district council|
|carroll freelance schemes and underwriting management|
|carron energy ltd|
|castell safety international ltd|
|caswell contracting (uk) ltd|
|catalyst housing group|
|causeway technology ltd|
|cawley financial services ltd|
|cdm scotland ltd|
|celador productions ltd|
|cemex trademarks worldwide ltd|
|central broadcasting abingdon|
|central broadcasting birmingham|
|central law training ltd|
|central networks & technologies ltd|
|central productions nottingham|
|central scotland forest trust|
|central trains limited|
|centrax gas turbine division|
|centre for process innovation|
|centrepoint soho ltd|
|centrol recycling co ltd|
|ceram research ltd|
|ceredigion county council (1)|
|challenger technology ltd|
|chandlers oil and gas|
|changzhou weikangte plastic co. ltd|
|channel strategy ltd|
|chapman taylor services ltd|
|charles kendall & partners ltd powerserve customer allocation|
|charles mador chartered architects ltd|
|charles stanley & co ltd.|
|charles wilson engineers ltd e15|
|charles wilson plant hire|
|chas e prossor & co ltd|
|cheetham & mortimer|
|chelford sap solutions|
|chelmer housing partnership ltd|
|chelmsford borough council|
|chelsea fc plc|
|chelton electrostatics ltd-1|
|chemical drums ltd|
|chemtech waste office lan|
|cherwell district council|
|cheshire county council|
|cheshire telecom ltd|
|chester city council|
|chetwood associates ltd|
|chicago bridge & iron company|
|chichester district council|
|christian salvesen group|
|chrysler motors corporation|
|chubb & son|
|chubb security personnel|
|cinema management ltd|
|cisco systems inc.|
|city & guilds of london institute|
|city college coventry|
|city college manchester|
|city electrical factors|
|city of edinburgh district council|
|city of london 2012|
|city of newcastle-upon-tyne cc|
|city of stoke on trent council|
|city of sunderland council|
|city of westminster council|
|city of york council|
|clancy docwra ltd|
|clariant international ltd.|
|clark construction ltd|
|clark smith partnership|
|clarke bond group|
|clarke nichols and marcel|
|clay shaw thomas|
|clc contractors ltd|
|clearly secure ltd|
|close brothers corporate finance ltd|
|close brothers ltd|
|close credit management|
|clyde & co.|
|cm parker browne|
|cma testing & certification laboratories|
|cmc projects llp|
|cms cameron mckenna|
|coastal training technologies|
|coca cola bottling company of new york|
|colamet manufacturing ltd|
|colchester borough council|
|cole (industries) ltd|
|cole robert & co limited|
|colin toms & partners|
|collinson grant consultants ltd|
|colt international ltd.|
|comet group plc|
|command alkon ltd|
|commercial marine and piling ltd|
|commercial metals company steel group|
|commission for architecture 8th building|
|commission for equality & human rights|
|commission for healthcare audit & inspection|
|commissioning and technical services ltd|
|communication solutions ltd.|
|communication spares (uk) ltd|
|communications networking services|
|computacenter uk ltd|
|concise it limited|
|concordia international forwarding|
|concrete grinding ltd|
|conder structures td|
|consafe engineering (uk) limited|
|consarc design group|
|consolidated communications inc.|
|constant power services|
|construction industry training board|
|construction products association|
|contracts direct uk ltd|
|control risks screening|
|controlled power technologies limited|
|converged communication solutions limited|
|conwy county borough council|
|coop himmelblau prix & swiczinsky gmbh|
|cooper lighting and security|
|cornwall county council|
|cornwall county council|
|corporate architecture ltd|
|corporate executive board|
|corporate fx ltd|
|corus & regal hotel group plc|
|costain ltd gerrards cross|
|costain ltd kingsway|
|costain ltd southampton|
|counter solutions ltd|
|covell matthews architects ltd|
|coventry building society|
|coventry city council|
|cox homes limited|
|cox project management ltd|
|crawley borough council|
|crest nicholson plc|
|crewe & nantwich borough council|
|crh plant - cotswold roller hire|
|cripps harries hall llp|
|cross fight ltd|
|cross keys homes ltd|
|crossrail london networks|
|crown castle uk ltd|
|crown packaging uk plc|
|crown timber plc|
|crownlea group limited|
|crownlea hire & sales ltd|
|crucial systems ltd|
|cruden investments ltd|
|crummock (scotland) ltd|
|crystal gate solutions|
|crystel comms ltd|
|csc it ltd|
|csl factory superstore|
|ctm internet services|
|cts group ltd|
|cuddy d & d ltd (sa10 6en)|
|cullen building products limited ky62|
|cullum detuners ltd|
|cumbria county council ltd|
|cummins engine co.|
|curtiss wright corporation|
|cyril w.bishop engineering services limited|
|cyrus capital partners europe llp|
|d & d rail ltd|
|d c mobile welding|
|d d lamson plc|
|d e clegg limited|
|d w windsor ltd|
|d.g. controls limited|
|dacorum borough council|
|dacre son and hartley ltd|
|daikin uk ltd|
|daimler chrylser uk ltd|
|dairy crest ltd|
|damstahl a s|
|dane housing (congleton) limited|
|daresbury laboratory site network|
|data installations & supplies ltd|
|david cover and son ltd|
|david lloyd leisure cafes|
|david lyons & associates lan|
|david mclean (holdings) ltd|
|david morgan associates|
|david wilson homes ltd|
|davies arnold cooper|
|davis (forest field) ltd|
|davis langdon & everest|
|day & sons (brentford) limited|
|day & zimmermann|
|dbi group ltd|
|dbk goyne & adams|
|dc leisure ltd|
|de boer tenten|
|de customer links|
|de la rue|
|de lage landen international bv|
|de montfort insurance|
|de montfort university|
|de vere hotels plc|
|dearborn midwest conveyor co.|
|dearne valley college|
|debevoise & plympton|
|deborah services ltd|
|dee tech services ltd ch5|
|dee valley water|
|deejak builders (rushden) ltd|
|deeside automation control systems|
|degw uk ltd|
|del monte uk|
|dell computer corporation|
|dell international services|
|delmarva power and light company|
|deloitte & touche|
|deloitte & touche czech|
|deloitte & touche oy|
|deloitte & touche quality firm sa|
|deloitte advisory and management consulting ltd.|
|deloitte italy spa|
|deloitte touche tohmatsu international|
|deloitte touche tohmatsu services inc.|
|delotte advisory sp. z o o|
|den danske bank|
|denbighshire county council|
|denne group ltd|
|dennis eagle ltd|
|dentsteel services (yorkshire) ltd|
|department of agriculture for northern ireland|
|department of highway safety and motor vehicles|
|department of treasury and finance of victoria|
|derby city council|
|derby city council education|
|derbyshire fire & rescue|
|derry building services|
|derwentside district council|
|deutsche bank regional head office|
|deutsche telekom ag|
|development capital management - bis first range|
|devon & cornwall housing association limited|
|devon county council|
|dewberry redpoint limited|
|dexia banque internationale a luxembourg|
|dexia public finance bank|
|dfds tor line plc|
|dg controls ltd|
|dhl global mail|
|diametric technical limited|
|diamond power speciality limited|
|disney worldwide services inc.|
|dixons stores group|
|dla piper uk llp|
|dmr seals ltd|
|dna worldwide limited|
|domino s pizza|
|donald lomax & partners|
|doncaster finningley airport|
|dorset county council|
|dow corning ltd|
|down district council|
|drew & barltrop associates|
|dsb shopfitters ltd|
|dubai development and investment authority|
|dubai international financial centre|
|dudley metropolitan borough council|
|duffy construction ltd|
|dumfries and galloway council|
|dundee city council|
|dunne building and civil engineering ltd-1|
|durham city council netblock|
|durrants press cuttings ltd|
|dwa architects ltd|
|dwf coventry ltd|
|dyer & butler ltd|
|e & b engineering services group plc|
|e & b engineering special works|
|east ayrshire council|
|east devon district council|
|east dunbartonshire council|
|east hampshire district council|
|east lindsey district council|
|east london bus & coach company ltd|
|east lothian council|
|east lothian housing association ltd|
|east renfrewshire council|
|east riding of yorkshire council|
|eddie stobart ltd|
|eden city council|
|edmund nuttall limited|
|eds global field services-1|
|edwards geldard derby|
|ej taylor & sons ltd.|
|ejc construction ltd|
|elliot thomas limited|
|elyo services ltd|
|embc - lincolnshire county council|
|emerson management services|
|energy networks association ltd|
|english welsh and scottish railways|
|enviroment agency peterborough|
|environ uk ltd|
|environ uk ltd|
|environmental services ltd|
|epping forest college|
|epping forest district council|
|ernst & young llp|
|essex & suffolk water|
|essex county council|
|essex county council|
|essex county showground dial pool|
|essex drywall ltd|
|euro dismantling services ltd|
|euro london appointments|
|euroconnex networks llp|
|eurofilter (airfilters) ltd|
|eurofleet rental ltd|
|eurolink telecom limited fixed|
|euronet digital communications|
|european bank for reconstrcution and development|
|european metal recycling ltd|
|evans and langford llp|
|evans concrete products ltd|
|evans easyspace ltd|
|eve group plc|
|eve trakway ltd|
|everest construction ltd|
|evergreen uk ltd|
|evesham and pershore housing association|
|evolution securities limited|
|exel europe ltd|
|f & r cawley limited|
|f b ellmer limited|
|f j morris contracting ltd|
|f m global ltd|
|fairview new homes ltd|
|feilden clegg bradley architects|
|feltham construction ltd|
|fern training development ltd|
|ffp packaging solutions ltd|
|fibet rubber bonding (uk) ltd|
|financial times information|
|finning uk ltd|
|finsbury (instruments) limited|
|fire fighting enterprises|
|firefly internet xdsl|
|first american title insurance company inc.|
|first base group - victoria (grosvenor house)|
|first choice holidays plc|
|first commercial bank of florida|
|first engineering ltd|
|fj goodwin and sons|
|flaircourt properties ltd|
|fleet hire ltd|
|fletcher challenge limited|
|flintshire county council|
|fmc corporation uk ltd dunfermline|
|fmg support ltd|
|fo architects limited|
|ford motor company|
|forest gate construction co ltd|
|forest traffic signals ltd|
|fox construction ltd (ml6)|
|foxdown construction ltd|
|frontier agriculture/network partners|
|frost and sullivan ltd|
|fujiseal europe limited|
|fujitsu services bolton|
|fulcrum group holdings ltd|
|g & a plastics|
|g bopp & co ltd|
|g e banks builders ltd|
|gap group ltd|
|gateway west midlands limited|
|gatwick plant ltd|
|gc partnership ltd|
|gcp chartered architects|
|ge life insurance|
|geberit sales ltd|
|gebler tooth architects|
|gebr. heller gmbh nuertingen|
|gec alsthom engineering|
|gec avery berkel group|
|gecis- global business organisation|
|gedling borough council|
|gee construction ltd|
|geismar uk limited|
|gem internet services (pvt) ltd|
|general atlantic partners|
|general domestic appliances limited (gda)|
|general electric company|
|general electric plastics bv|
|general healthcare group|
|general motors corporation|
|general services administration|
|generation 9 computers ltd|
|genie uk ltd|
|geo houlton & sons|
|geo kingsbury machine tools ltd|
|geoffrey parker bourne solicitors|
|geoffrey walton practice|
|geopost core network|
|george & harding construction ltd|
|george barlow lan|
|george killoughery ltd|
|george watson s college|
|gesti n de direccionamiento uninet|
|gfi software ltd uk|
|gfn adsl solution /32 /31 /30 customers|
|gfn managed broadband solution single ip nat customers|
|ggr communications - kinnerton confectionery|
|ggr glass services ltd|
|ghana telecom adsl dynamic address pool|
|ghana telecom fractional e1 customers|
|ghi contracts ltd|
|ghk international ltd|
|gibbons drive systems ltd|
|gibraltar nynex communications|
|gibtel dynamic adsl pool|
|gigo systems ltd - future communications|
|gigo systems ltd - internet city|
|gilbert ash ni ltd|
|gilbert gilkes & gordon ltd|
|gilling dodd architects|
|gino lombardo associates|
|gkn driveline international gmbh|
|gkn freight services|
|gkn hardy spicer ltd|
|gl hearn ltd|
|glapwell contracting services limited|
|glasgow caledonian university|
|glasgow city council|
|glasgow council city of education services|
|glasgow housing association (gha)|
|glasgow telecolleges network consortium|
|glasgow west housing assoc|
|glass and mirror ltd|
|gleeds construction nottingham|
|gleesons building ltd|
|glement ltd managed broadband adsl assignment|
|glencroft civil engineering ltd|
|global home loans|
|global hosting - global messaging group|
|global iletisim ostim|
|global isp by prioritytelecom spain s.a.|
|global leaders institutes|
|global marine systems ltd|
|global mobile operator|
|global netblock for pd ports plc|
|global network solutions ltd|
|global security group|
|global tac llc|
|global telecommunication service provider|
|globecall inter medya|
|gloucestershire college of arts and technology|
|gmg financial services|
|go barking mad-bis /27 allocation|
|golden bear products ltd|
|golden lines international communication services ltd.|
|golder associates (uk) ltd|
|golder associates uk ltd-1|
|goldman sachs company|
|gordian strapping limited|
|gordon ellis adsl|
|gorseinon college of fe|
|government integrated telecommunication network (gitn)|
|gower furniture ltd|
|gr carr (essex) ltd|
|grafton group plc|
|graham hart (process technology) ltd|
|grampian country food group scotland|
|grampian fire brigade|
|grande communications networks inc.|
|grannell steel ltd|
|gray and adams (doncaster) ltd|
|gray and adams ltd|
|gray services lan|
|great yarmouth college of further education|
|greater manchester police|
|greater manchester police|
|greater merseyside connexions|
|green hill jenner architects|
|green isp b.v.|
|green issues communications ltd|
|greengate furniture ltd|
|greenham trading ltd|
|greens apartments - ter17-tael|
|gregory demolition ltd|
|gristwood & toms ltd|
|grosvenor estate holdings|
|group 4 technology|
|groupe iweb technologies inc.|
|groupo portocel sopocel|
|grove 2000 plc|
|grupo ferrovial network|
|gruppo chemio s.r.l.|
|gs telecom nigeria|
|gt internet (delta partnership) managed broadband adsl assignmen|
|gti computers ltd - gom environmental|
|gts - datanet telecommunication ltd|
|gts czech a.s.|
|gts inec s.r.o.|
|guangzhou wanluo inc.|
|guardian glass espa a central vidriera s.l.|
|guardian industries uk ltd|
|guardian systems (scotland) ltd|
|guernsey net ltd|
|guildford borough council|
|gunn jcb ltd|
|gus robinsons development ltd|
|gw pharmaceuticals plc|
|gwynedd county council|
|gx networks uk ltd|
|gyoury self partnership|
|h & h celcon limited|
|h and s aviation ltd|
|h bauer publishing-1|
|h h saudi research marketing uk ltd powerserve customer allocati|
|h j heinz company limited|
|h rsholm kommune|
|h s pitt|
|h.k. thorburn & son|
|h.m.s. raleigh btcml dfts|
|h2 ok systems ltd|
|h3guk subscribers block 2|
|ha & db kitchin|
|hackney community college|
|haden building management ltd|
|haden freeman ltd|
|haden young limited|
|haden young limited (rh6)|
|haines watts chartered accountants|
|halcrow group limited|
|halcyon business solutions ltd|
|hale handels gmbh|
|halifax & bank of scotland|
|hall construction group|
|hall fire protection ltd|
|halladale developments ltd|
|hallmark cards plc.|
|halton borough council|
|hamad medical corporation subnet-11167|
|hamara system tabriz co.|
|hamilton hall consultants limited|
|hamilton leigh ltd|
|hammond suddards edge|
|hampson industries plc|
|handstand uk ltd - barrie tankel partnership|
|hannover rueckversicherungs ag|
|hanover fox international ltd|
|hansenet telekommunikation gmbh|
|harbour and general works|
|hargreaves construction co ltd|
|harland machines systems limited|
|harold potter ltd|
|harper adams university college|
|harper resourcing ltd|
|harris pye marine ltd|
|harris trust & savings bank|
|harrison europac ltd|
|harrison signs ltd|
|harrods international ltd|
|harry fairclough construction|
|hart district council|
|harte hanks crm services uk|
|hartest precision instruments ltd|
|hartlepool college of further education|
|hartlepool water internet space|
|hartnell taylor cook|
|harvest communications limited|
|harvey & co|
|harvey ingram llp|
|hasco hasenclever gmbh & co. kg|
|haskoning uk ltd|
|haslams chartered surveyors|
|hassell pty ltd|
|hastingwood secs ltd powerserve customer allocation|
|hastingwood securities ltd.|
|hathway cable and datacom pvt ltd|
|hathway ip over cable internet access service|
|haul-it solutions ltd managed broadband adsl assignment|
|havelock europa plc|
|hawk tractors ltd|
|hawke international ltd|
|hawker beechcraft corp|
|hay group management|
|hayder marshall house|
|haydock finance ltd|
|haymills contractors limited|
|hays personnel services ltd|
|hazel mccormack young|
|hbt communications ltd managed broadband adsl assignment|
|hcd group ltd|
|health & safety executive|
|health & safety laboratory|
|health care projects|
|health protection agency|
|heart of england housing group|
|heathrow garage services ltd|
|heaton stationery limited|
|heavyparts hydraulics ltd|
|hebrides.net radio network|
|heidelberger zement ag|
|heisterkamp transport b.v.|
|helical technology ltd|
|hellmann logistics ltd|
|hemming group ltd|
|hempel coatings singapore pte ltd|
|henderson boyd jackson|
|henderson fabrications uk ltd|
|henderson global investers|
|henderson stone & company|
|hendrickson europe ltd|
|henley college coventry|
|henry boot & sons plc|
|henry boot scotland plc|
|henry squire and sons limited|
|herbert baggaley construction ltd|
|herefordshire college of technology|
|herefordshire county council network|
|heritable bank ltd|
|heritage construction and landscaping ltd|
|herriot project management|
|hertford regional college firewall ip block 1|
|hertfordshire county council|
|hertfordshire county council - corporate ict unit|
|hertfordshire county council-1|
|hertfordshire display plc|
|hessle fork lift trucks|
|heyrod communications ltd|
|hfcl infotel ltd|
|hig european capital partners|
|high peak borough council|
|higham group (ludgate house)|
|higher colleges of technology|
|highland council (2)|
|highspec comms civils limited|
|highspeed office limited|
|highways and utilities construction ltd|
|hill and smith ltd|
|hill hire ltd|
|hill international uk ltd - hill international|
|hill mcglynn and associates ltd-1|
|hill partnership inc.|
|hillhouse quary group ltd|
|hillstone products ltd|
|hilti - trafford park|
|hinckley and bosworth borough council-1|
|hi-spec facilites support co. plc|
|historic property restoration ltd|
|hi-strength bolt company|
|hitachi capital (uk) plc|
|hitachi credit uk plc|
|hitchen foods of wigan|
|hitechmedia systems s.r.o.|
|hiway communications ltd|
|hk cable tv ltd|
|hkl gas power ltd|
|hoare govett services|
|hobs reprographics plc|
|hochtief ag essen|
|hoffmann laroche inc.|
|hofman s lieve diergeneesmiddelen|
|hogg robinson financial services ltd|
|hojgaard & schultz (uk) ltd|
|hok sve ltd|
|holbruck fastners ltd|
|holder mathias architects plc|
|hollington architects ltd|
|holloway white allom ltd|
|holy cross college|
|honda of the uk manufacturing|
|honda reasearch and development uk ltd|
|honeywell international inc.|
|hoogovens ijmuiden bv|
|hopkins architects ltd|
|hopwood hall college|
|horsfield building services engineers|
|horsham district council|
|hosital saving association|
|hosokawa micron limited|
|hospitality training partnership|
|hosted solutions acquisition llc|
|houses of parliament|
|housing & development board|
|housing schools and egovt|
|howard russell construction ltd|
|howarine calvert limited|
|howden group ltd|
|hozelock group plc|
|hradec kralove vazni|
|hsbc bank plc uk|
|hsp consulting ltd|
|htc - dial-up internet pool|
|htc - dsl modem pool|
|htc slipsystem ab|
|huaqiao-mansion nanjing jiangsuprovince|
|huawei technologies co ltd|
|hub network services ltd|
|hubert c leach ltd|
|huddersfield technical college|
|hudson sandler ltd|
|hugh baird college|
|hughes network systems|
|hughes network systems gmbh|
|hughes network systems ltd|
|hull adult & community learning|
|hungaria press nyomdaipari kft.|
|hunter construction (aberdeen) ltd|
|hunter plastics ltd|
|huntingdon housing partnership|
|huntingdonshire district council|
|huntingdonshire regional college|
|huntress search ltd|
|hurley robertson and associates|
|huron consulting group inc.|
|husk uk ltd|
|hutchison 3g ireland limited|
|hutchison 3g uk limited|
|hutchison global communications|
|hutton construction ltd|
|hvhs pennyfarthing house|
|hyde housing association|
|hyder business services|
|hydrex equipment u.k. ltd|
|hydrock contracting ltd|
|hygrade foods ltd|
|ikea corporate network|
|impact air systems|
|impact safety glass ltd|
|imperial cancer research fund|
|independent wholesale express ltd|
|indorama polymer ltd|
|infield systems ltd|
|innovia film ltd|
|intec (uk) ltd|
|ip network services ltd|
|j sainsburys / accenture (feltham)|
|jack lunn (construction ) ltd|
|jackson civil engineering|
|jackson coles partnership|
|jackson construction limited|
|jaguar building services ltd|
|jaguar centre hull|
|james f stephen architects|
|jephson housing assocation ltd|
|jimmy choo ltd|
|john doyle construction limited|
|john lewis partnership|
|john parker & sons ltd|
|john pawson architects|
|john reilly civil engineering ltd|
|john ruck construction|
|john sisk & son ltd|
|john thompson & partners|
|john turner & sons (preston) ltd|
|johnathan hart associates|
|johnson & johnson|
|johnson matthey plc|
|johnston sweepers ltd|
|jp morgan chase & co|
|k. home engineering ltd|
|kaberry building ltd|
|kajima construction (europe) ltd|
|kay transport ltd|
|kaybridge construction ltd|
|kci konecranes plc.|
|kdd europe limited|
|kddi europe ltd|
|kelberg trailers and trucks ltd|
|keller ground engineering|
|kemira growhow uk ltd|
|kenard engineering co. ltd|
|kendrick construction group|
|kensington & chelsea tenant management ltd|
|kensington & chelsea tenant management organisation ltd|
|kent county council|
|kent county council|
|kent institute of art and design|
|kent jones & done|
|kent plant and tools ltd|
|kerridge computer co|
|kerrier district council|
|keybridge secondary network|
|keystone international inc.|
|keyway network systems|
|khl group ltd|
|kibble education & care centre|
|kier group plc|
|kier group plc|
|kiernan construction limited|
|kilby and gayford limited|
|kiln supply services ltd|
|king lifting limited|
|king oscar hotel|
|king s college london|
|kings college school of medicine and dentistry|
|kingston finishes lan|
|kingston technology europe ltd|
|kittwake developments ltd|
|korea trade centre|
|lafarge aggregates ltd|
|lafarge aggregates ltd|
|lafarge roofing gmbh|
|laing & buisson ltd|
|laing orourke plc|
|lancashire county council|
|lancaster city council|
|landmark information systems limited|
|larmer brown consulting|
|laser holdings (uk) ltd|
|lawrence skip hire|
|layton blackham group limited|
|leach lewis ltd|
|leaderflush & sharpland ltd|
|leaf ireland ltd.|
|leafield marine limited|
|lease method management ltd|
|leeds city council|
|leena corporation limited|
|leerose integrated sytems ltd|
|legal & general investment management holdings ltd|
|leggetts transport ltd|
|lehman brothers inc|
|leicester city council|
|leicester county council|
|leicester fire & rescue|
|leicestershire county council|
|leighton contractors pty ltd|
|leiths (scotland) limited|
|lely (uk) ltd|
|lentjes uk ltd|
|leonard cooper ltd|
|leslie jones architects(london)|
|letchworth roofing co ltd|
|leven consultants ltd|
|lever street properties|
|lewis & hickey ltd|
|liebherr holding gmbh|
|lincoln city council|
|lincolnshire county council|
|lincolnshire county council|
|lindsey archaeological services|
|link housing association ltd.|
|liquid gas equipment ltd|
|liquid plastics limited|
|littlewoods retail ltd|
|liverpool direct ltd|
|liverpool hope university|
|liverpool john moores university|
|lloyds kone cranes|
|lloyds konecranes ltd|
|lloyds register integrity public network|
|lloyds register rail|
|lloyds tsb bank plc|
|lnt properties llp|
|local government county borough council south wales|
|loftus road plc|
|logistic support consultants|
|lomar shipping ltd|
|london 2012 ltd|
|london and capital group ltd|
|london borough of bexley|
|london borough of havering|
|london borough of lambeth|
|london development agency|
|london fluid system technologies ltd|
|london overground rail operations ltd|
|london scottish bank|
|longcross group ltd|
|lonza biologics plc|
|look ahead housing & care|
|loughborough grammar school|
|lufthansa systems gmbh|
|luxembourg online s.a.|
|luxtech ltd - gregory rowcliffe milners|
|macfarlan smith ltd|
|macfarlane group uk|
|macquarie bank ltd|
|madame tussaud s ltd|
|maersk oil north sea uk ltd|
|magna buildings limited|
|magna international europe|
|magnet networks limited|
|magnox electric plc|
|mahle powertrain ltd.|
|mail source uk ltd|
|maitland & co|
|major league baseball|
|malone roofing - newbury|
|malvern hills district council|
|manchester city council|
|manley summers offsite process|
|mann construction ltd|
|manrose manufacturing ltd|
|mansell construction services ltd-1|
|mansfield district council|
|mansfield district council|
|map plant ltd|
|maple timberframe of langley ltd|
|marathon oil uk ltd|
|marchpole group ltd|
|marconi corporation plc|
|marcus worthington co ltd|
|marina developments ltd|
|marketforce communications ltd|
|marler hayley expo systems ltd|
|marley contract services|
|marley eternit ltd|
|marley extrusions ltd|
|marshall aerospace ltd|
|martin alan construction ltd|
|martin grant homes ltd|
|martin stockley associates ltd|
|marubeni komatsu ltd|
|marwood group ltd|
|masdar uk limited|
|masterbill micro systems ltd|
|matchtech group plc|
|material marketing & communications ltd (g1 4jh)|
|material measurements ltd.|
|materials recovery ltd|
|matravers engineering ltd`|
|matrix securities limited|
|matthew & goodman|
|max fordham llp|
|maxi haulage ltd|
|may gurney ltd|
|mayer brown rowe & maw llp|
|mayflower vehicle systems plc|
|mbw training services ltd|
|mcaleer & rushe ltd|
|mcarthur group ltd ltd|
|mccarthy & stone|
|mcgrath brothers engineering|
|mda group plc|
|mechplant north west ltd|
|medina dairy ltd|
|medina housing association|
|mediterranean shipping company|
|melton borough council|
|melville electrical services ltd|
|mentor flt training|
|merrill corporation ltd|
|merrill lynch and company inc.|
|metro net rail u361|
|metropolitan housing trust ltd|
|mfi furniture group|
|mgl demolition ltd|
|miami-dade county public schools|
|michael aukett architects|
|michael barugh steels|
|michael sparks associates|
|micromass uk ltd|
|mid & west wales fire service|
|mid bedfordshire district council|
|mid devon district council|
|mid sussex district council|
|midland building supplies (mansfield)|
|midland building supplies (sheffield)|
|mill studio business|
|millbrook precision engineering ltd|
|millennium copthorne hotels|
|milton keynes college|
|milton keynes council|
|milton keynes council|
|mitech europe ltd|
|mitek industries ltd|
|mitsubishi electric europe coordination centre|
|mizuho corporate bank|
|mj gleeson group plc|
|mkm building supplies|
|mm miller (wick) ltd|
|mmoser associates ltd|
|moab consulting servers|
|moat housing group|
|mol tankship management|
|molecular products ltd|
|monster worldwide deutschland gmbh|
|montal group limited|
|montana sky networks inc.|
|montgomery transport ltd|
|moore and blatch solicitors|
|moorgarth group ltd|
|morgan cole assignment|
|morgan est plc|
|morley & scott|
|morris & spottiswood ltd|
|morrison & foerster|
|morson projects ltd|
|mott macdonald international|
|mott parsons gibb|
|mouchel consulting ltd|
|mpb structures ltd|
|mps group international|
|mras ltd (t/a mra architect)|
|msc industrial supply|
|mt media ltd|
|munters europe ab|
|napp pharmaceutical holdings limited|
|nason davis ltd|
|national air traffic service|
|national blood service|
|national house building council|
|national maritime museum|
|national park service|
|nationwide asbestos property surveys ltd|
|nationwide building society|
|nationwide windows (uk) ltd|
|nato airbase teveren|
|natural environment research council (nerc)|
|natural history museum|
|neath porttalbot county borough council|
|nelm development trust ltd|
|nelson mullins riley & scarborough|
|neptune shipping agency|
|network of air products|
|network of ennis paint|
|network of fellowes uk ltd|
|network of parker hannifin corporation|
|network of parker hannifin hemel office|
|network of tyco international|
|network partners ltd|
|network rail information systems|
|newport city council|
|nexen petroleum uk ltd|
|nhs logistics authority|
|nias northern ireland ambulance service|
|nilorn calmon uk|
|ningbo kaite machine manufacture co. ltd.|
|nms civil engineering ltd|
|nopac midlands ltd|
|nordan uk ltd|
|norfolk county council|
|norfolk county council|
|north ayrshire council|
|north banchory company|
|north devon college|
|north dorset district council|
|north east lincs council|
|north east lincs raw point to point|
|north hertfordshire homes|
|north herts district council|
|north lanarkshire council|
|north lincolnshire council|
|north lincolnshire council|
|north lincs council|
|north of england microelectronics institute|
|north rock communications ltd.|
|north shropshire district council|
|north somerset council|
|north west electronics|
|north west electronics|
|north yorkshire timber|
|northamptonshire county council|
|northcliffe newspaper group|
|northcliffe newspaper group ltd|
|northern counties housing association|
|northern ireland civil service|
|northern rock plc|
|northumberland county council|
|notability solutions ltd|
|notting hill housing group|
|nottingham city council|
|nottingham tram consortium|
|nottinghamshire county council|
|nova design (uk) limited|
|nrb engineering consultants ltd|
|nwp recycling ltd|
|o brien properties ltd|
|o donnell developments ltd|
|o donovan waste disposal limited|
|o2 (uk) ltd|
|oce uk ltd|
|one call hire|
|optima contracting ltd|
|optimum air conditioning plc|
|orange home uk plc|
|orchard concepts ltd|
|orion electric ltd|
|orkney islands council|
|osel architecture limited|
|otr tyres ltd|
|outokumpu stainless ltd|
|owen williams ltd|
|oxford city council-1|
|oxford macintosh solutions ltd|
|p & a receivable services plc|
|p & r security systems ltd|
|p a collacott & company|
|p w c access ltd|
|p&o stena line ltd ltd|
|pall europe limited|
|pall-ex (uk) ltd|
|panalpina world transport ltd|
|panduit europe headquarters|
|pannone & partners|
|panton sargent ltd|
|parade marketing limited|
|paradise wildlife park|
|parchment housing group|
|park resorts ltd|
|parker hannifin corp|
|parker williams design|
|parks motor group|
|pasquill roof trusses ltd|
|pds international ltd|
|peel holdings plc|
|pell frischmann consultants limited|
|pembrokeshire county council|
|pendale construction ltd|
|pentland brands plc|
|penwith district council|
|penwith housing association - main|
|perth & kinross council|
|peter brotherhood ltd|
|peterborough city council|
|phoenix it group plc|
|pinnacle it solutions ltd - european care uk ltd|
|police aviation services ltd.|
|pollard thomas & edwards ltd|
|polo ralph lauren europe s rl|
|port of london authority|
|portsmouth city council|
|portsmouth housing association|
|portsmouth water plc|
|portus consulting limited|
|powerplay direct ltd|
|powys county council|
|prc architects assignment|
|prospects services ltd|
|protel uk ltd|
|pwp building services ltd|
|quantum construction ltd|
|r j mcleod contractors ltd|
|r k civil engineers ltd|
|r w gregory llp|
|radisson edwardian hotels is london s largest privately owned gr|
|railway industry association|
|rapid racking ltd|
|rapid rail ltd|
|rawley plant ltd|
|reading borough council|
|reading borough council (library project)|
|real world holdings|
|red squared plc|
|redrow group services|
|regent greeting cards ltd|
|registers of scotland|
|reid group plc|
|renault f1 team ltd|
|rentokil initial plc|
|rhondda cynon taff county borough council|
|richard austin alloys|
|richmond housing partnership|
|ridge & partners|
|ridge and partners llp|
|ridgeway community housing association|
|right coutts ltd|
|right coutts ltd|
|ringway group ltd|
|river island - clothing company ltd|
|rivermead unit trust ltd|
|road contract services|
|robert turley associates ltd|
|robertson group (construction) ltd|
|robison & davidson|
|robson and sawdon ltd|
|rochford district council|
|roger bullivant ltd|
|roger bullivant ltd|
|rolled alloys ltd|
|rolls-royce marine as|
|royal bank of scotland|
|royal bank of scotland international|
|royal berkshire fire & rescue service|
|royal institute of chartered surveyors|
|royal institution of chartered surveyors coventry|
|royal national institute for the blind|
|rps group plc|
|rps group plc|
|ruesch international ltd|
|runnymede borough council|
|rushmoor borough council|
|rutherford appleton laboratory|
|rutland county council|
|ryder hks international|
|rydon construction ltd|
|s and h coating|
|saga group limited|
|salford city council|
|sammon chartered surveyors|
|sandwell metropolitan borough council|
|scarab sweepers ltd|
|scarborough borough council|
|schott industrial gl|
|schutz (uk) limited|
|scitech engineering ltd|
|scom group plc|
|scotframe timber engineering (ni) ltd|
|scottish border council|
|scottish commission for the regulation|
|scottish courts service|
|scottish enviroment protection agency|
|scottish power plc|
|scottish widows plc|
|screwfix direct ltd|
|sdc builders limited|
|sdi greenstone ltd|
|selecta uk ltd|
|serco group plc|
|serco services ltd|
|severfield-reeve structures ltd|
|severn trent services|
|severn trent water|
|shakespeare globe theatre|
|sheffield forgemasters engineering ltd|
|sheffield hallam university|
|sheffield insulation group|
|sheffield insulations limited|
|shell hong kong ltd|
|shell information technology international|
|shen milsom & wilke ltd|
|shepherd construction ltd|
|shetland islands council|
|shire leasing plc|
|shopfittings direct limited|
|siemens fin servises sp|
|signature industries ltd|
|signpost housing association limited|
|silvertown uk ltd|
|simmons & simmons|
|simms & woods ltd(wr10 2pu)|
|simons construction ltd|
|sir robert mcalpine|
|sir robert mcalpine ltd|
|sir robert mcalpine ltd|
|sir robert mcalpine ltd|
|siteguard uk limited|
|skanska construction group ltd|
|skanska construction ltd|
|skanska uk plc|
|skinner & reeves|
|skipton building society|
|sky power international ltd|
|smc gower architects ltd|
|smc parr architects ltd|
|smith woolley & perry chartered surveyors|
|smiths group plc|
|smiths metal centres|
|solihull borough council|
|somerset county council|
|sos holdings ltd|
|source cable ltd.|
|south ayrshire council|
|south derbyshire council|
|south east water|
|south holland council for embc|
|south kesteven district council|
|south lanarkshire council|
|south lanarkshire council|
|south ribble council|
|south staffordshire water plc|
|south west regional assembly|
|south west water|
|south yorkshire fire|
|southampton city college|
|southampton city council|
|southend schools nats|
|southern housing group|
|southern testing ltd|
|southern water services ltd|
|sovereign housing group limited|
|soveriegn engineering facilities ltd|
|space interiors uk ltd|
|spring group plc|
|squibb and davies (demolition limited)|
|st albans city and district council|
|st albans school|
|st andrews school|
|st helens council|
|st johns ambulance|
|st regis paper co ltd|
|st regis paper company ltd|
|staffordshire county council infrastructure|
|staffsign (east anglia) ltd|
|standard life assurance company|
|stanelco rf tech ltd|
|stanley tee solicitors|
|stanton bonna concrete ltd|
|starbucks coffee company|
|staveley engineering services ltd|
|steel construction institute|
|stena drilling internet connection|
|stephen george partners|
|stephen gould paper company inc.|
|steptoe & johnson ip assignment|
|steria uk ltd|
|sterling capital pvt. ltd.|
|sterling publishing group plc|
|steve mills associates|
|stevenage borough council|
|stevenage leisure ltd|
|stevens hatherley holdings ltd|
|stockport education services|
|stockport metropolitan borough council|
|stockton on tees borough council|
|stockwell forest products ltd|
|stoke on trent city council|
|stolt offshore ltd|
|strathclyde fire brigade|
|structures one ltd|
|stryker uk ltd|
|stuart bowler contractors ltd|
|sulzer (uk) pumps ltd|
|sumitomo mitsui banking corporation capital markets|
|sunderland housing group|
|sunsail worldwide sailing|
|sunspot tours ltd|
|supreme concrete ltd|
|surrey county council|
|surrey county cricket club|
|sussex waste recycling t/a rabbit skips|
|sutton & east surrey water plc|
|sutton harbour company|
|swaythling housing society ltd|
|swedish nuclear fuel and waste management co skb|
|swindon borough council|
|swish building products|
|syntegra guidion house|
|t & c site services ltd|
|t & t beverages|
|talisman energy (uk) ltd|
|tameside metropolitan council|
|tandem tv & film ltd|
|tandridge district council|
|taskmaster (resources) ltd|
|taylor nelson agb|
|taylor woodrow plc|
|tc harrison (jcb) ltd|
|tekla (uk) limited|
|teknek electronics ltd|
|telectronics systems ltd|
|telegraph group limited|
|telford homes plc|
|temperature control ltd|
|tendring district council|
|terence conran ltd|
|terence o rourke ltd|
|terex equipment ltd|
|terra firma construction limited|
|terrapart international ltd|
|terrapinn holdings ltd|
|texas state department of highways and public transportation|
|th fergusson ltd|
|thales information systems|
|thames reach bondway housing association|
|thames valley police|
|thames valley university|
|thameside fire protection (ss14)|
|the alan campbell group ltd|
|the alarming company|
|the alternative steel company|
|the automobile association|
|the bank of new york|
|the barbican centre|
|the beattie watkinson partnership ltd|
|the berkeley leisure group ltd|
|the blomfield group|
|the borough of telford & wrekin council|
|the british horseracing board limited|
|the catering centre ltd|
|the chase manhattan bank n.a.|
|the cit group|
|the coal authority|
|the danwood group ltd|
|the denis wilson partnership|
|the dow chemical company|
|the ellenor lions hospices|
|the felixstowe dock & railway company|
|the fencing partnership ltd|
|the first hydro company|
|the institution of civil engineers (registered charity)|
|the iron bed company|
|the longhirst group|
|the mersey docks & harbour co.|
|the natural power consultants|
|the nottingham trent university|
|the pinstripe clothing co. ltd|
|the portal partnership - cross london rail links crossrail|
|the princes trust|
|the procter and gamble company|
|the regenda group|
|the richmond cabinet company limited|
|the ridings housing lan|
|the robert gordon university|
|the roger wenn partnership limited|
|the royal chace hotel ltd|
|the royal opera house|
|the royal veterinary college|
|the salvation army|
|the scott partnership|
|the sumitomo bank limited|
|the treasury solicitor|
|the tube lines|
|the uk grid network ltd|
|the university college london hospitals nhs trust|
|the university of birmingham|
|the university of bristol|
|the university of huddersfield|
|the university of melbourne|
|the university of northampton|
|the university of nottingham|
|the university of plymouth|
|the university of reading uk|
|the university of st. andrews|
|the water industry commissioners|
|the welding institute|
|the woodford group plc|
|thermit welding (gb) ltd|
|thermographic measurements ltd|
|thomas cook ltd|
|thomas fish and sons ltd|
|thomas johnstone ltd|
|thomas nugent architects ltd|
|thompson snell & passmore|
|thorgood timber plc|
|thorn baker ltd|
|three rivers leased line|
|thring townsends solicitors|
|thurlby thandar instruments ltd|
|thurrock borough council|
|thyssenkrupp materials (uk)|
|tidewell solutions ltd|
|time warner telecom inc.|
|timothy james and partners|
|tioxide group plc|
|titanium metals corp|
|tolent construction ltd|
|topcon (gb) ltd|
|toronto dominion bank|
|total gas and power ltd|
|totty construction group ltd|
|towens waste management limited|
|toyota industries it supply europe|
|toyota motor marketing europe brussels|
|tpp interiors ltd|
|trad hire && sales|
|trafford metropolitan borough council|
|tralee institute of technology|
|transcar projects ltd|
|transcribe thames group|
|transeuropa ferries nv|
|transglobal freight management|
|transpeed (europe) ltd.|
|transport & general workers union|
|trant construction limited|
|travelex uk ltd|
|trench farrow & partners|
|trent valley window & door company|
|trinity house lighthouse service|
|trinity mirror group|
|triple eight race engineering|
|tripod it ltd|
|trol limited ccs group|
|troup bywaters and anders|
|trowers & hamlins|
|trumeter co limited|
|trumps solicitors tlt|
|tsbs gmbh fuer hameln pharmaceuticals gmbh|
|tt thames travel|
|tte training ltd|
|turbocam europe ltd|
|turnbull & co ltd|
|turner & townsend|
|turner & townsend|
|turners (soham) ltd|
|turriff contractors ltd|
|tve plant hire|
|tvm head office|
|tw clark ltd|
|tw gaze and son|
|twintec ind. flooring|
|twinwall fixings (uk) ltd|
|tyco building services products|
|tyco electronics corporation|
|tyco fire security & services pte ltd|
|tycom business systems|
|tyrolit uk ltd|
|tyser greenwood estate management limited|
|u.s. environmental protection agency|
|ugc cinemas ltd|
|uhi millennium institute|
|uk coal mining ltd|
|uk drainage networks|
|uk explorer ltd|
|uk forex ltd|
|uk it training ltd|
|uk steel enterprise ltd leased line|
|uk structured finance ltd|
|uk wharehouse accociation|
|unipart group limited|
|unique forwarding ltd|
|unique office solutions ltd|
|unite group contract|
|unite group contract|
|unite intergrated solutions|
|unite intergrated solutions|
|unite solutions limited|
|united biscuits (uk) limited|
|united energy communications|
|united insurance brokers|
|united nations logistics base|
|united parcel service|
|united states army corps of engineers|
|unitek fabrications da8 2aj|
|unitron systems & development ltd|
|universities of medway consortium|
|university college london|
|university college of ripon and york st john|
|university of abertay dundee|
|university of arkansas|
|university of athens|
|university of bath|
|university of brighton|
|university of cambridge|
|university of central england in birmingham|
|university of central lancashire|
|university of dar es salaam|
|university of derby|
|university of dundee|
|university of east anglia|
|university of east london|
|university of essex|
|university of exeter|
|university of glamorgan|
|university of glasgow|
|university of gloucestershire|
|university of hertfordshire|
|university of hull|
|university of kent at canterbury|
|university of lancaster|
|university of leeds|
|university of lincoln|
|university of liverpool (net-livnet)|
|university of luton|
|university of manchester|
|university of newcastle upon tyne|
|university of north london|
|university of northumbria|
|university of northumbria at newcastle|
|university of port elizabeth|
|university of portsmouth|
|university of reggio calabria|
|university of salford|
|university of sheffield|
|university of southampton|
|university of stellenbosch|
|university of stirling|
|university of strathclyde|
|university of sunderland|
|university of sunderland enterprises|
|university of surrey|
|university of sussex|
|university of teesside|
|university of the west of england bristol|
|university of ulster at jordanstown|
|university of ulster at magee college|
|university of wales aberystwyth|
|university of wales bangor|
|university of wales college newport|
|university of wales institute cardiff|
|university of wales swansea|
|university of westminster|
|university of wolverhampton|
|university of york|
|university of zululand|
|urban splash group ltd|
|urenco (capenhurst) ltd|
|urs corporation ltd|
|uscarrier telecom llc.|
|uti worldwide uk ltd|
|utility billing & metering ltd|
|utp umwelttechnik poehnl gmbh|
|v.c. summer nuclear station|
|vaasan laanin puhelin oy|
|vaioni group ltd|
|vale contract services ltd|
|vale of glamorgan council|
|valley connections llc|
|value retail plc|
|van der moolen speci|
|vanco row ltd.|
|vanco uk ltd|
|vangaurd site services|
|various publically accessible services|
|vascroft contractors ltd|
|vaughan engineering group limited|
|vdata core london|
|veale wasbrough solicitors|
|vega group plc|
|venesta washroom systems|
|venson automotive solutions|
|vent master (europe) ltd|
|venture production co. ltd.|
|veolia water solutions|
|veritas software ltd|
|verlag hoppenstedt gmbh|
|verve venues ltd|
|vestas wind systems a/s|
|vhe construction plc|
|volker stevin ltd.|
|volvo information technology is located in gothenburg sweden.|
|volvo information technology ltd|
|vopak terminal ipswich ltd|
|vopak terminal teesside ltd|
|vt group plc|
|vt group plc|
|vwg rcn gateway|
|w a developments ltd|
|w a fairhurst & partners|
|w h malcolm group|
|w h smith and sons (tools) ltd|
|w s atkins|
|w t partnership|
|w. hiles partnership ltd|
|w.j. harte construction ltd|
|w.r. grace & co.|
|waco uk limited|
|wageningen university and research centre|
|wago kontakttechnik gmbh|
|wagstaff group - middlesex|
|wah ming optical mfy ltd|
|walker construction uk ltd|
|walkers snack foods ltd|
|wallace whittle ltd|
|walter lilly & co ltd|
|wansbeck district council adsl|
|warbrick international ltd|
|warrington borough council|
|warwick district council|
|warwickshire county council|
|water at work ltd|
|water research centre plc|
|water research commission|
|waterford institute of technology|
|waterman partnership holdings plc|
|watford borough council|
|watkin jones + son|
|watkins - driftield barn|
|watkins - head office|
|watling jcb ltd|
|watson steel structure|
|waveney pumps ltd|
|waverney insurance brokers ltd|
|weatherproofing advisors ltd|
|weatherwise (uk) limited|
|wec group limited|
|wedge group galvanizing ltd|
|weir pumps ltd|
|welcome food ingredients ltd|
|welcome italia spa|
|welsh development unit|
|welwyn hatfield council|
|wembley national stadium ltd|
|wern veterinary surgeons|
|wessanen- multinational food corp|
|west berkshire council|
|west bromwich building society|
|west cumberland engineering ltd|
|west dunbartonshire council|
|west lothian council|
|west mercia police|
|west properties uk ltd|
|west sussex county council|
|west yorkshire public transport exec-1|
|western thermal ltd|
|westfield shoppingtowns ltd.|
|westinghouse air brake co.|
|westinghouse electric company|
|westinghouse rail system ltd.|
|westlea housing association ltd|
|weston aerospace ltd|
|wheatsheaf shopping centre rochdale|
|whitby bird & partners|
|white design associates ltd|
|white friars housing|
|whitefield brownfield ltd bl2 3ee|
|whites material handling|
|wight cable internal infrastructure|
|wilco international ltd|
|wilde fea ltd|
|william hare ltd.|
|william keys & sons|
|william m mercer pty ltd|
|william m. mercer|
|williams murray hamm|
|willis group services ltd|
|wilson & cooke|
|wilson james ltd|
|wilts wholesale electrical co ltd|
|wiltshire county council|
|wincer kievenaar partnership|
|winchester city council|
|witan jardine holdings ltd|
|wj harte construction ltd|
|wmh transmissions limited|
|wns global services|
|woking borough council|
|wokingham borough council|
|wokingham district council|
|wolverhampton city council|
|wolverhampton city council-1|
|woodard & curran|
|woodard schools (mid)|
|worcester community housing|
|worcester panel doors|
|worcestershire county council|
|worcestershire county council|
|worthing borough council|
|wrc holdings ltd|
|wrekin construction co ltd|
|wrekin welding & fabrication engineering ltd.|
|wrexham council borough council|
|wright manufacturing services ltd|
|wrigley deutschland gmbh|
|wsp group plc|
|wt jenkins ltd|
|wtb group ltd|
|wtlamb holdings ltd|
|yellowspring plc - aspect contracts|
|ylem ltd - l lynch plant hire|
|york county council lan|
|young electronics group|
|zenith international ltd|
|zurich financial services group|
|zurich insurance company|
Information provided by Google IP tracking.
"European Recovery Program" redirects here. It is not to be confused with European Economic Recovery Plan.
|Other short titles|| |
|Long title||An Act to promote world peace and the general welfare, national interest, and foreign policy of the United States through economic, financial, and other measures necessary to the maintenance of conditions abroad in which free institutions may survive and consistent with the maintenance of the strength and stability of the United States.|
|Enacted by||the 80th United States Congress|
|Effective||June 3, 1948|
|Statutes at Large||62 Stat. 137|
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (approximately $130 billion in current dollar value as of June 2016) in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II. The plan was in operation for four years beginning April 8, 1948. The goals of the United States were to rebuild war-devastated regions, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, make Europe prosperous once more, and prevent the spread of communism. The Marshall Plan required a lessening of interstate barriers, a dropping of many regulations, and encouraged an increase in productivity, labour union membership, as well as the adoption of modern business procedures.
The Marshall Plan aid was divided amongst the participant states roughly on a per capita basis. A larger amount was given to the major industrial powers, as the prevailing opinion was that their resuscitation was essential for general European revival. Somewhat more aid per capita was also directed towards the Allied nations, with less for those that had been part of the Axis or remained neutral. The largest recipient of Marshall Plan money was the United Kingdom (receiving about 26% of the total), followed by France (18%) and West Germany (11%). Some 18 European countries received Plan benefits. Although offered participation, the Soviet Union refused Plan benefits, and also blocked benefits to Eastern Bloc countries, such as East Germany and Poland. The United States provided similar aid programs in Asia, but they were not called "Marshall Plan".
The initiative is named after Secretary of State George Marshall, who also served as the United States Army Chief of staff during WWII. The plan had bipartisan support in Washington, where the Republicans controlled Congress and the Democrats controlled the White House with Harry S. Truman as president. The Plan was largely the creation of State Department officials, especially William L. Clayton and George F. Kennan, with help from the Brookings Institution, as requested by Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Marshall spoke of an urgent need to help the European recovery in his address at Harvard University in June 1947. The purpose of the Marshall Plan was to aid in the economic recovery of nations after WWII as well as to antagonize the Soviet Union. In order to combat the effects of the Marshall Plan, the USSR developed its own economic plan, known as the Molotov Plan. It was not as effective as the Marshall Plan, and in some ways contradictory to eastern block countries that served alongside the axis powers in WWII.
The phrase "equivalent of the Marshall Plan" is often used to describe a proposed large-scale economic rescue program.
- 1 Development and deployment
- 2 Wartime destruction
- 3 Initial post-war events
- 3.1 Slow recovery
- 4 Soviet negotiations
- 5 Marshall's speech
- 6 Rejection by the Soviets
- 6.1 Initial reactions
- 6.2 Compulsory Eastern Bloc rejection
- 6.3 Yugoslavia
- 6.4 Szklarska Poręba meeting
- 7 Passage in Congress
- 8 Negotiations
- 9 Implementation
- 9.1 Technical Assistance Program
- 9.2 German level of industry restrictions
- 10 Expenditures
- 11 Loans and grants
- 12 Effects and legacy
- 13 Repayment
- 14 Areas without the Plan
- 14.1 Aid to Asia
- 14.2 Canada
- 14.3 World total
- 15 Criticism
- 15.1 Laissez-faire criticism
- 15.2 Modern criticism
- 16 In popular culture
- 17 See also
- 18 Notes
- 19 References
- 20 Further reading
- 21 External links
Development and deployment
The reconstruction plan, developed at a meeting of the participating European states, was drafted on June 5, 1947. It offered the same aid to the Soviet Union and its allies, but they refused to accept it, as doing so would allow a degree of US control over the communist economies. In fact, the Soviet Union prevented its satellite states (i.e., East Germany, Poland, etc.) from accepting. Secretary Marshall became convinced Stalin had no interest in helping restore economic health in Western Europe.European Recovery Program expenditures by country
President Harry Truman signed the Marshall Plan on April 3, 1948, granting $5 billion in aid to 16 European nations. During the four years the plan was in effect, the United States donated $13 billion (equivalent to $189.39 billion in 2016) in economic and technical assistance to help the recovery of the European countries that joined the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation. The $13 billion was in the context of a US GDP of $258 billion in 1948, and on top of $13 billion in American aid to Europe between the end of the war and the start of the Plan that is counted separately from the Marshall Plan. The Marshall Plan was replaced by the Mutual Security Plan at the end of 1951; that new plan gave away about $7 billion annually until 1961 when it was replaced by another program.
The ERP addressed each of the obstacles to postwar recovery. The plan looked to the future, and did not focus on the destruction caused by the war. Much more important were efforts to modernize European industrial and business practices using high-efficiency American models, reducing artificial trade barriers, and instilling a sense of hope and self-reliance.
By 1952, as the funding ended, the economy of every participant state had surpassed pre-war levels; for all Marshall Plan recipients, output in 1951 was at least 35% higher than in 1938. Over the next two decades, Western Europe enjoyed unprecedented growth and prosperity, but economists are not sure what proportion was due directly to the ERP, what proportion indirectly, and how much would have happened without it. A common American interpretation of the program's role in European recovery was expressed by Paul Hoffman, head of the Economic Cooperation Administration, in 1949, when he told Congress Marshall aid had provided the "critical margin" on which other investment needed for European recovery depended. The Marshall Plan was one of the first elements of European integration, as it erased trade barriers and set up institutions to coordinate the economy on a continental level—that is, it stimulated the total political reconstruction of western Europe.
Belgian economic historian Herman Van der Wee concludes the Marshall Plan was a "great success":
It gave a new impetus to reconstruction in Western Europe and made a decisive contribution to the renewal of the transport system, the modernization of industrial and agricultural equipment, the resumption of normal production, the raising of productivity, and the facilitating of intra-European trade.
Wartime destructionBombed and burned-out buildings in Nuremberg, 1945
By the end of World War II, much of Europe was devastated. Sustained aerial bombardment during the war had badly damaged most major cities, and industrial facilities were especially hard-hit. The region's trade flows had been thoroughly disrupted; millions were in refugee camps living on aid from United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration and other agencies. Food shortages were severe, especially in the harsh winter of 1946–47. From July 1945 through June 1946, the United States shipped 16.5 million tons of food, primarily wheat, to Europe and Japan. It amounted to one-sixth of the American food supply, and provided 35 trillion calories, enough to provide 400 calories a day for one year to 300 million people.
Especially damaged was transportation infrastructure, as railways, bridges, and docks had been specifically targeted by airstrikes, while much merchant shipping had been sunk. Although most small towns and villages had not suffered as much damage, the destruction of transportation left them economically isolated. None of these problems could be easily remedied, as most nations engaged in the war had exhausted their treasuries in the process.
The only major powers whose infrastructure had not been significantly harmed in World War II were the United States and Canada. They were much more prosperous than before the war but exports were a small factor in their economy. Much of the Marshall Plan aid would be used by the Europeans to buy manufactured goods and raw materials from the United States and Canada.
Initial post-war events
Europe's economies were recovering slowly, as unemployment and food shortages led to strikes and unrest in several nations. In 1947 the European economies were still well below their pre-war levels and were showing few signs of growth. Agricultural production was 83% of 1938 levels, industrial production was 88%, and exports only 59%. In Britain the situation was not as severe.
In Germany in 1945–46 housing and food conditions were bad, as the disruption of transport, markets and finances slowed a return to normality. In the West, bombing had destroyed 5,000,000 houses and apartments, and 12,000,000 refugees from the east had crowded in. Food production was only two-thirds of the pre-war level in 1946–48, while normal grain and meat shipments no longer arrived from the East. The drop in food production can be attributed to a drought that killed a major portion of the wheat crop while a severe winter destroyed the majority of the wheat crop the following year. This caused most Europeans to rely on a 1,500 calorie per day diet. Furthermore, the large shipments of food stolen from occupied nations during the war no longer reached Germany. Industrial production fell more than half and reached pre-war levels only at the end of 1949.
While Germany struggled to recover from the destruction of the War, the recovery effort began in June 1948, moving on from emergency relief. The currency reform in 1948 was headed by the military government and helped Germany to restore stability by encouraging production. The reform revalued old currency and deposits and introduced new currency. Taxes were also reduced and Germany prepared to remove economic barriers.
During the first three years of occupation of Germany, the UK and US vigorously pursued a military disarmament program in Germany, partly by removal of equipment but mainly through an import embargo on raw materials, part of the Morgenthau Plan approved by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Nicholas Balabkins concludes that "as long as German industrial capacity was kept idle the economic recovery of Europe was delayed." By July 1947 Washington realized that economic recovery in Europe could not go forward without the reconstruction of the German industrial base, deciding that an "orderly, prosperous Europe requires the economic contributions of a stable and productive Germany." In addition, the strength of Moscow-controlled communist parties in France and Italy worried Washington.
In the view of the State Department under President Harry S Truman, the United States needed to adopt a definite position on the world scene or fear losing credibility. The emerging doctrine of containment (as opposed to rollback) argued that the United States needed to substantially aid non-communist countries to stop the spread of Soviet influence. There was also some hope that the Eastern Bloc nations would join the plan, and thus be pulled out of the emerging Soviet bloc, but that did not happen.The hunger-winter of 1947, thousands protest in West Germany against the disastrous food situation (March 31, 1947). The sign says: We want coal, we want bread
In January 1947, Truman appointed retired General George Marshall as Secretary of State. In July 1947 Marshall scrapped Joint Chiefs of Staff Directive 1067 implemented as part of the Morgenthau Plan under the personal supervision of Roosevelt's treasury secretary Henry Morgenthau, Jr., which had decreed "take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany [or] designed to maintain or strengthen the German economy." Thereafter, JCS 1067 was supplanted by JCS 1779, stating that "an orderly and prosperous Europe requires the economic contributions of a stable and productive Germany." The restrictions placed on German heavy industry production were partly ameliorated; permitted steel production levels were raised from 25% of pre-war capacity to a new limit placed at 50% of pre-war capacity.
With a communist insurgency threatening Greece, and Britain financially unable to continue its aid, the President announced his Truman Doctrine on 12 March 1947, "to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures", with an aid request for consideration and decision, concerning Greece and Turkey. Also in March 1947, former US President Herbert Hoover, in one of his reports from Germany, argued for a change in US occupation policy, amongst other things stating:
There is the illusion that the New Germany left after the annexations can be reduced to a 'pastoral state' (Morgenthau's vision). It cannot be done unless we exterminate or move 25,000,000 people out of it.
Hoover further noted that, "The whole economy of Europe is interlinked with German economy through the exchange of raw materials and manufactured goods. The productivity of Europe cannot be restored without the restoration of Germany as a contributor to that productivity." Hoover's report led to a realization in Washington that a new policy was needed; "almost any action would be an improvement on current policy." In Washington, the Joint Chiefs declared that the "complete revival of German industry, particularly coal mining" was now of "primary importance" to American security.
The United States was already spending a great deal to help Europe recover. Over $14 billion was spent or loaned during the postwar period through the end of 1947, and is not counted as part of the Marshall Plan. Much of this aid was designed to restore infrastructure and help refugees. Britain, for example, received an emergency loan of $3.75 billion.
The United Nations also launched a series of humanitarian and relief efforts almost wholly funded by the United States. These efforts had important effects, but they lacked any central organization and planning, and failed to meet many of Europe's more fundamental needs. Already in 1943, the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) was founded to provide relief to areas liberated from Germany. UNRRA provided billions of dollars of rehabilitation aid, and helped about 8 million refugees. It ceased operation of displaced persons camps in Europe in 1947; many of its functions were transferred to several UN agencies.
After Marshall's appointment in January 1947, administration officials met with Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov and others to press for an economically self-sufficient Germany, including a detailed accounting of the industrial plants, goods and infrastructure already removed by the Soviets in their occupied zone. Molotov refrained from supplying accounts of Soviet assets. The Soviets took a punitive approach, pressing for a delay rather than an acceleration in economic rehabilitation, demanding unconditional fulfillment of all prior reparation claims, and pressing for progress toward nationwide socioeconomic transformation.
After six weeks of negotiations, Molotov rejected all of the American and British proposals. Molotov also rejected the counter-offer to scrap the British-American "Bizonia" and to include the Soviet zone within the newly constructed Germany. Marshall was particularly discouraged after personally meeting with Stalin to explain that the United States could not possibly abandon its position on Germany, while Stalin expressed little interest in a solution to German economic problems.
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After the adjournment of the Moscow conference following six weeks of failed discussions with the Soviets regarding a potential German reconstruction, the United States concluded that a solution could not wait any longer.
To clarify the US's position, a major address by Secretary of State George Marshall was planned. Marshall gave the address to the graduating class of Harvard University on June 5, 1947. Standing on the steps of Memorial Church in Harvard Yard, he offered American aid to promote European recovery and reconstruction. The speech described the dysfunction of the European economy and presented a rationale for US aid.
The modern system of the division of labor upon which the exchange of products is based is in danger of breaking down. ... Aside from the demoralizing effect on the world at large and the possibilities of disturbances arising as a result of the desperation of the people concerned, the consequences to the economy of the United States should be apparent to all. It is logical that the United States should do whatever it is able to do to assist in the return of normal economic health to the world, without which there can be no political stability and no assured peace. Our policy is not directed against any country, but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos. Any government that is willing to assist in recovery will find full co-operation on the part of the USA. Its purpose should be the revival of a working economy in the world so as to permit the emergence of political and social conditions in which free institutions can exist.
Marshall was convinced that economic stability would provide political stability in Europe. He offered aid, but the European countries had to organize the program themselves.
The speech, written by Charles Bohlen, contained virtually no details and no numbers. More a proposal than a plan, it was a challenge to European leaders to cooperate and coordinate. It asked Europeans to create their own plan for rebuilding Europe, indicating the United States would then fund this plan. The administration felt that the plan would likely be unpopular among many Americans, and the speech was mainly directed at a European audience. In an attempt to keep the speech out of American papers, journalists were not contacted, and on the same day, Truman called a press conference to take away headlines. In contrast, Dean Acheson, an Under Secretary of State, was dispatched to contact the European media, especially the British media, and the speech was read in its entirety on the BBC.
Rejection by the Soviets
| Soviet Socialist Republics |
| Allied states |
| Related organizations |
Trade Unions (WFTU) World Federation of
Democratic Youth (WFDY)
| Dissent and opposition Forest Brothers |
| Cold War events |
| Decline |
British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin heard Marshall's radio broadcast speech and immediately contacted French Foreign Minister Georges Bidault to begin preparing a quick European response to (and acceptance of) the offer, which led to the creation of the Committee of European Economic Co-operation. The two agreed that it would be necessary to invite the Soviets as the other major allied power. Marshall's speech had explicitly included an invitation to the Soviets, feeling that excluding them would have been a sign of distrust. State Department officials, however, knew that Stalin would almost certainly not participate, and that any plan that would send large amounts of aid to the Soviets was unlikely to be approved by Congress.
Speaking at the Paris Peace Conference on 10 October 1946 Molotov had already stated Soviet fears: " If American capital was given a free hand in the small states ruined and enfeebled by the war [it] would buy up the local industries, appropriate the more attractive Rumanian, Yugoslav […] enterprises and would become the master in these small states ." While the Soviet ambassador in Washington suspected that the Marshall Plan could lead to the creation of an anti-Soviet bloc, Stalin was open to the offer. He directed that—in negotiations to be held in Paris regarding the aid—countries in the Eastern Bloc should not reject economic conditions being placed upon them. Stalin only changed his outlook when he learned that (a) credit would only be extended under conditions of economic cooperation and, (b) aid would also be extended to Germany in total, an eventuality which Stalin thought would hamper the Soviets' ability to exercise influence in western Germany.
Initially, Stalin maneuvered to kill the Plan, or at least hamper it by means of destructive participation in the Paris talks regarding conditions. He quickly realized, however, that this would be impossible after Molotov reported—following his arrival in Paris in July 1947—that conditions for the credit were non-negotiable. Looming as just as large a concern was the Czechoslovak eagerness to accept the aid, as well as indications of a similar Polish attitude.
Stalin suspected a possibility that these Eastern Bloc countries might defy Soviet directives not to accept the aid, potentially causing a loss of control of the Eastern Bloc. In addition, the most important condition was that every country choosing to take advantage of the plan would need to have its economic situation independently assessed—a level of scrutiny to which the Soviets could not agree. Bevin and Bidault also insisted that any aid be accompanied by the creation of a unified European economy, something incompatible with the strict Soviet command economy.
Compulsory Eastern Bloc rejection
Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov left Paris, rejecting the plan. Thereafter, statements were made suggesting a future confrontation with the West, calling the United States both a "fascizing" power and the "center of worldwide reaction and anti-Soviet activity," with all U.S.-aligned countries branded as enemies. The Soviets also then blamed the United States for communist losses in elections in Belgium, France and Italy months earlier, in the spring of 1947. It claimed that "marshallization" must be resisted and prevented by any means, and that French and Italian communist parties were to take maximum efforts to sabotage the implementation of the Plan. In addition, Western embassies in Moscow were isolated, with their personnel being denied contact with Soviet officials.
On July 12, a larger meeting was convened in Paris. Every country of Europe was invited, with the exceptions of Spain (a World War II neutral that had sympathized with Axis powers) and the small states of Andorra, San Marino, Monaco, and Liechtenstein. The Soviet Union was invited with the understanding that it would likely refuse. The states of the future Eastern Bloc were also approached, and Czechoslovakia and Poland agreed to attend. In one of the clearest signs and reflections of tight Soviet control and domination over the region, Jan Masaryk, the foreign minister of Czechoslovakia, was summoned to Moscow and berated by Stalin for considering Czechoslovakia's possible involvement with and joining of the Marshall Plan. The prime minister of Poland, Józef Cyrankiewicz, was rewarded by Stalin for his country's rejection of the Plan, which came in the form of the Soviet Union's offer of a lucrative trade agreement lasting for a period of five years, a grant amounting to the approximate equivalent of $450 million (in 1948; the sum would have been $4.4 billion in 2014) in the form of long-term credit and loans and the provision of 200,000 tonnes of grain, heavy and manufacturing machinery and factories and heavy industries to Poland.
The Marshall Plan participants were not surprised when the Czechoslovakian and Polish delegations were prevented from attending the Paris meeting. The other Eastern Bloc states immediately rejected the offer. Finland also declined in order to avoid antagonizing the Soviets (see also Finlandization). The Soviet Union's "alternative" to the Marshall plan, which was purported to involve Soviet subsidies and trade with western Europe, became known as the Molotov Plan, and later, the Comecon. In a 1947 speech to the United Nations, Soviet deputy foreign minister Andrei Vyshinsky said that the Marshall Plan violated the principles of the United Nations. He accused the United States of attempting to impose its will on other independent states, while at the same time using economic resources distributed as relief to needy nations as an instrument of political pressure.
Although all other Communist European Countries had deferred to Stalin and rejected the aid, the Yugoslavs, led by Josip Broz (Tito), at first went along and rejected the Marshall Plan. However, in 1948 Tito broke decisively with Stalin on other issues, making Yugoslavia an independent communist state. Yugoslavia requested American aid. American leaders were internally divided, but finally agreed and began sending money on a small scale in 1949, and on a much larger scale in 1950-53. The American aid was not part of the Marshall Plan.
Szklarska Poręba meeting
In late September, the Soviet Union called a meeting of nine European Communist parties in southwest Poland. A Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) report was read at the outset to set the heavily anti-Western tone, stating now that "international politics is dominated by the ruling clique of the American imperialists" which have embarked upon the "enslavement of the weakened capitalist countries of Europe". Communist parties were to struggle against the US presence in Europe by any means necessary, including sabotage. The report further claimed that "reactionary imperialist elements throughout the world, particularly in the U.S.A., in Britain and France, had put particular hope on Germany and Japan, primarily on Hitlerite Germany—first as a force most capable of striking a blow at the Soviet Union".
Referring to the Eastern Bloc, the report stated that "the Red Army's liberating role was complemented by an upsurge of the freedom-loving peoples' liberation struggle against the fascist predators and their hirelings." It argued that "the bosses of Wall Street" were "tak[ing] the place of Germany, Japan and Italy". The Marshall Plan was described as "the American plan for the enslavement of Europe". It described the world now breaking down "into basically two camps—the imperialist and antidemocratic camp on the one hand, and the antiimperialist and democratic camp on the other".
Although the Eastern Bloc countries except Czechoslovakia had immediately rejected Marshall Plan aid, Eastern Bloc communist parties were blamed for permitting even minor influence by non-communists in their respective countries during the run up to the Marshall Plan. The meeting's chair, Andrei Zhdanov, who was in permanent radio contact with the Kremlin from whom he received instructions, also castigated communist parties in France and Italy for collaboration with those countries' domestic agendas. Zhdanov warned that if they continued to fail to maintain international contact with Moscow to consult on all matters, "extremely harmful consequences for the development of the brother parties' work" would result.
Italian and French communist leaders were prevented by party rules from pointing out that it was actually Stalin who had directed them not to take opposition stances in 1944. The French communist party, as others, was then to redirect its mission to "destroy capitalist economy" and that the Soviet Communist Information Bureau (Cominform) would take control of the French Communist Party's activities to oppose the Marshall Plan. When they asked Zhdanov if they should prepare for armed revolt when they returned home, he did not answer. In a follow-up conversation with Stalin, he explained that an armed struggle would be impossible and that the struggle against the Marshall Plan was to be waged under the slogan of national independence.
Passage in Congress
Congress, under the control of conservative Republicans, agreed to the program for multiple reasons. The 20-member conservative isolationist Senate wing of the party, based in the rural Midwest and led by Senator Kenneth S. Wherry (R-Nebraska), was outmaneuvered by the emerging internationalist wing, led by Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg (R-Michigan). The opposition argued that it would be "a wasteful 'operation rat-hole'"; that it made no sense to oppose communism by supporting the socialist governments in Western Europe; and that American goods would reach Russia and increase its war potential. Vandenberg, assisted by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (R-Massachusetts) admitted there was no certainty that the plan would succeed, but said it would halt economic chaos, sustain Western civilization, and stop further Soviet expansion. Senator Robert A. Taft (R-Ohio), the most prominent conservative, hedged on the issue. He said it was without economic justification; however, it was "absolutely necessary" in "the world battle against communism." In the end, only 17 senators voted against it on 13 March 1948 A bill granting an initial $5 billion passed Congress with strong bipartisan support. Congress would eventually allocate $12.4 billion in aid over the four years of the plan.
Congress reflected public opinion, which resonated with the ideological argument that communism flourishes in poverty. Truman's own prestige and power had been greatly enhanced by his stunning victory in the 1948 election. Across America, multiple interest groups, including business, labor, farming, philanthropy, ethnic groups, and religious groups, saw the Marshall Plan as an inexpensive solution to a massive problem, noting it would also help American exports and stimulate the American economy as well. Major newspapers were highly supportive, including such conservative outlets as Time Magazine. Vandenberg made sure of bipartisan support on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Regional attitudes played little part[clarification needed]; the Solid Democratic South was highly supportive, the upper Midwest was dubious, but heavily outnumbered. The plan was opposed by conservatives in the rural Midwest, who opposed any major government spending program and were highly suspicious of Europeans. The plan also had some opponents on the left, led by Henry A. Wallace, the former Vice President. He said the Plan was hostile to the Soviet Union, a subsidy for American exporters, and sure to polarize the world between East and West. However, opposition against the Marshall Plan was greatly reduced by the shock of the Communist coup in Czechoslovakia in February 1948. The appointment of the prominent businessman Paul G. Hoffman as director reassured conservative businessmen that the gigantic sums of money would be handled efficiently.
Turning the plan into reality required negotiations among the participating nations. Sixteen nations met in Paris to determine what form the American aid would take, and how it would be divided. The negotiations were long and complex, with each nation having its own interests. France's major concern was that Germany not be rebuilt to its previous threatening power. The Benelux countries (Belgium, Netherlands and Luxemburg), despite also suffering under the Nazis, had long been closely linked to the German economy and felt their prosperity depended on its revival. The Scandinavian nations, especially Sweden, insisted that their long-standing trading relationships with the Eastern Bloc nations not be disrupted and that their neutrality not be infringed.
The United Kingdom insisted on special status as a longstanding belligerent during the war, concerned that if it were treated equally with the devastated continental powers it would receive virtually no aid. The Americans were pushing the importance of free trade and European unity to form a bulwark against communism. The Truman administration, represented by William L. Clayton, promised the Europeans that they would be free to structure the plan themselves, but the administration also reminded the Europeans that implementation depended on the plan's passage through Congress. A majority of Congress members were committed to free trade and European integration, and were hesitant to spend too much of the money on Germany. However, before the Marshall Plan was in effect, France, Austria, and Italy needed immediate aid. On December 17, 1947, the United States agreed to give $40 million to France, Austria, China, and Italy.
Agreement was eventually reached and the Europeans sent a reconstruction plan to Washington, which was formulated and agreed upon by the Committee of European Economic Co-operation in 1947. In the document the Europeans asked for $22 billion in aid. Truman cut this to $17 billion in the bill he put to Congress. On March 17, 1948, Truman addressed European security and condemned the Soviet Union before a hastily convened Joint Session of Congress. Attempting to contain spreading Soviet influence in Eastern Bloc, Truman asked Congress to restore a peacetime military draft and to swiftly pass the Economic Cooperation Act, the name given to the Marshall Plan. Of the Soviet Union Truman said, "The situation in the world today is not primarily the result of the natural difficulties which follow a great war. It is chiefly due to the fact that one nation has not only refused to cooperate in the establishment of a just and honorable peace but—even worse—has actively sought to prevent it."
Members of the Republican-controlled 80th Congress (1947–1949) were skeptical. "In effect, he told the Nation that we have lost the peace, that our whole war effort was in vain.", noted Representative Frederick Smith of Ohio. Others thought he had not been forceful enough to contain the USSR. "What [Truman] said fell short of being tough", noted Representative Eugene Cox, a Democrat from Georgia, "there is no prospect of ever winning Russian cooperation." Despite its reservations, the 80th Congress implemented Truman's requests, further escalating the Cold War with the USSR.
Truman signed the Economic Cooperation Act into law on April 3, 1948; the Act established the Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) to administer the program. ECA was headed by economic cooperation administrator Paul G. Hoffman. In the same year, the participating countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, West Germany, the United Kingdom, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States) signed an accord establishing a master financial-aid-coordinating agency, the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (later called the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development or OECD), which was headed by Frenchman Robert Marjolin.
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The first substantial aid went to Greece and Turkey in January 1947, which were seen as the front line of the battle against communist expansion, and were already receiving aid under the Truman Doctrine. Initially, Britain had supported the anti-communist factions in those countries, but due to its dire economic condition it decided to pull out and in February 1947 requested the US to continue its efforts. The ECA formally began operation in July 1948.
The ECA's official mission statement was to give a boost to the European economy: to promote European production, to bolster European currency, and to facilitate international trade, especially with the United States, whose economic interest required Europe to become wealthy enough to import US goods. Another unofficial goal of ECA (and of the Marshall Plan) was the containment of growing Soviet influence in Europe, evident especially in the growing strength of communist parties in Czechoslovakia, France, and Italy.
The Marshall Plan money was transferred to the governments of the European nations. The funds were jointly administered by the local governments and the ECA. Each European capital had an ECA envoy, generally a prominent American businessman, who would advise on the process. The cooperative allocation of funds was encouraged, and panels of government, business, and labor leaders were convened to examine the economy and see where aid was needed.
The Marshall Plan aid was mostly used for the purchase of goods from the United States. The European nations had all but exhausted their foreign exchange reserves during the war, and the Marshall Plan aid represented almost their sole means of importing goods from abroad. At the start of the plan, these imports were mainly much-needed staples such as food and fuel, but later the purchases turned towards reconstruction needs as was originally intended. In the latter years, under pressure from the United States Congress and with the outbreak of the Korean War, an increasing amount of the aid was spent on rebuilding the militaries of Western Europe. Of the some $13 billion allotted by mid-1951, $3.4 billion had been spent on imports of raw materials and semi-manufactured products; $3.2 billion on food, feed, and fertilizer; $1.9 billion on machines, vehicles, and equipment; and $1.6 billion on fuel.
Also established were counterpart funds, which used Marshall Plan aid to establish funds in the local currency. According to ECA rules 60% of these funds had to be invested in industry. This was prominent in Germany, where these government-administered funds played a crucial role in lending money to private enterprises which would spend the money rebuilding. These funds played a central role in the reindustrialization of Germany. In 1949–50, for instance, 40% of the investment in the German coal industry was by these funds.
The companies were obligated to repay the loans to the government, and the money would then be lent out to another group of businesses. This process has continued to this day in the guise of the state owned KfW bank, (Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau, meaning Reconstruction Credit Institute). The Special Fund, then supervised by the Federal Economics Ministry, was worth over DM 10 billion in 1971. In 1997 it was worth DM 23 billion. Through the revolving loan system, the Fund had by the end of 1995 made low-interest loans to German citizens amounting to around DM 140 billion. The other 40% of the counterpart funds were used to pay down the debt, stabilize the currency, or invest in non-industrial projects. France made the most extensive use of counterpart funds, using them to reduce the budget deficit. In France, and most other countries, the counterpart fund money was absorbed into general government revenues, and not recycled as in Germany.
The Netherlands received US aid for economic recovery in the Netherlands Indies. However, in January 1949, the American government suspended this aid in response to the Dutch efforts to restore colonial rule in Indonesia during the Indonesian National Revolution, and it implicitly threatened to suspend Marshall aid to the Netherlands if the Dutch government continued to oppose the independence of Indonesia.
Technical Assistance ProgramConstruction in West Berlin with the help of the Marshall Plan after 1948. On the plaque read: "Emergency Program Berlin - with the help of the Marshall Plan" US aid to Greece under the Marshall Plan
The US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) contributed heavily to the success of the Technical Assistance Program. The United States Congress passed a law on June 7, 1940 that allowed the BLS to "make continuing studies of labor productivity" and appropriated funds for the creation of a Productivity and Technological Development Division. The BLS could then use its expertise in the field of productive efficiency to implement a productivity drive in each Western European country receiving Marshall Plan aid.
By implementing technological literature surveys and organized plant visits, American economists, statisticians, and engineers were able to educate European manufacturers in statistical measurement. The goal of the statistical and technical assistance from the Americans was to increase productive efficiency of European manufacturers in all industries.
In order to perform this analysis, the BLS performed two types of productivity calculations. First, they used existing data to calculate how much a worker produces per hour of work—the average output rate. Second, they compared the existing output rates in a particular country to output rates in other nations. By performing these calculations across all industries, the BLS was able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each country's manufacturing and industrial production. From that, the BLS could recommend technologies (especially statistical) that each individual nation could implement. Often, these technologies came from the United States; by the time the Technical Assistance Program began, the United States used statistical technologies "more than a generation ahead of what [the Europeans] were using".
The BLS used these statistical technologies to create Factory Performance Reports for Western European nations. The American government sent hundreds of technical advisors to Europe in order to observe workers in the field; this on-site analysis made the Factory Performance Reports especially helpful to the manufacturers. In addition, the Technical Assistance Program funded 24,000 European engineers, leaders, and industrialists to visit America and tour America's factories, mines, and manufacturing plants. This way, the European visitors would be able to return to their home countries and implement the technologies used in the United States. The analyses in the Factory Performance Reports and the "hands-on" experience had by the European productivity teams effectively identified productivity deficiencies in European industries; from there, it became clearer how to make European production more effective.
Before the Technical Assistance Program even went into effect, Maurice Tobin (the United States Secretary of Labor) expressed his confidence in American productivity and technology to both American and European economic leaders. He urged that the United States play a large role in improving European productive efficiency by providing four recommendations for the program's administrators:
- That BLS productivity personnel should serve on American-European councils for productivity;
- that productivity targets (based on American productivity standards) can and should be implemented to increase productivity;
- that there should be a general exchange and publication of information; and
- that the "technical abstract" service should be the central source of information.
The effects of the Technical Assistance Program were not limited to improvements in productive efficiency. While the thousands of European leaders took their work/study trips to the United States, they were able to observe a number of aspects of American society as well. The Europeans could watch local, state, and federal governments work together with citizens in a pluralist society. They observed a democratic society with open universities and civic societies in addition to more advanced factories and manufacturing plants. The Technical Assistance Program allowed Europeans to bring home many types of American ideas.
Another important aspect of the Technical Assistance Program was its low cost. While $19.4 billion was allocated for capital costs in the Marshall Plan, the Technical Assistance Program only required $300 million. Only one-third of that $300 million cost was paid by the United States.1960 West German stamp honoring George Marshall
German level of industry restrictions
Even while the Marshall Plan was being implemented, the dismantling of ostensibly German industry continued; and in 1949 Konrad Adenauer, an opponent to Hitler's regime and the head of the Christian Democratic Union, wrote to the Allies requesting the end of industrial dismantling, citing the inherent contradiction between encouraging industrial growth and removing factories, and also the unpopularity of the policy. Adenauer had been released from prison, only to discover that the Soviets had effectively divided Europe with Germany divided even further. Support for dismantling was by this time coming predominantly from the French, and the Petersberg Agreement of November 1949 greatly reduced the levels of deindustrialization, though dismantling of minor factories continued until 1951. The first "level of industry" plan, signed by the Allies on March 29, 1946, had stated that German heavy industry was to be lowered to 50% of its 1938 levels by the destruction of 1,500 listed manufacturing plants. Marshall Plan played a huge role in post-war recovery for Europe in general. 1948, conditions were improving, European workers exceeded by 20 percent from the earning from the west side. Thanks to the Plan, during 1952, it went up 35 percent of the industrial and agricultural.
In January 1946 the Allied Control Council set the foundation of the future German economy by putting a cap on German steel production. The maximum allowed was set at about 5,800,000 tons of steel a year, equivalent to 25% of the pre-war production level. The UK, in whose occupation zone most of the steel production was located, had argued for a more limited capacity reduction by placing the production ceiling at 12 million tons of steel per year, but had to submit to the will of the US, France and the Soviet Union (which had argued for a 3 million ton limit). Steel plants thus made redundant were to be dismantled. Germany was to be reduced to the standard of life it had known at the height of the Great Depression (1932). Consequently, car production was set to 10% of pre-war levels, and the manufacture of other commodities was reduced as well.
The first "German level of industry" plan was subsequently followed by a number of new ones, the last signed in 1949. By 1950, after the virtual completion of the by then much watered-down "level of industry" plans, equipment had been removed from 706 manufacturing plants in western Germany and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6,700,000 tons. Vladimir Petrov concludes that the Allies "delayed by several years the economic reconstruction of the war-torn continent, a reconstruction which subsequently cost the United States billions of dollars." In 1951 West Germany agreed to join the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) the following year. This meant that some of the economic restrictions on production capacity and on actual production that were imposed by the International Authority for the Ruhr were lifted, and that its role was taken over by the ECSC.
The Marshall Plan aid was divided amongst the participant states on a roughly per capita basis. A larger amount was given to the major industrial powers, as the prevailing opinion was that their resuscitation was essential for general European revival. Somewhat more aid per capita was also directed towards the Allied nations, with less for those that had been part of the Axis or remained neutral. The exception was Iceland, which had been neutral during the war, but received far more on a per capita basis than the second highest recipient. The table below shows Marshall Plan aid by country and year (in millions of dollars) from The Marshall Plan Fifty Years Later. There is no clear consensus on exact amounts, as different scholars differ on exactly what elements of American aid during this period were part of the Marshall Plan.
|Belgium and Luxembourg||195||222||360||777|
|Italy and Trieste||594||405||205||1204|
Loans and grants
The Marshall Plan, just as GARIOA, consisted of aid both in the form of grants and in the form of loans. Out of the total, 1.2 billion USD were loan-aid.
Ireland which received 146.2 million USD through the Marshall Plan, received 128.2 million USD as loans, and the remaining 18 million USD as grants. By 1969 the Irish Marshall Plan debt, which was still being repaid, amounted to 31 million pounds, out of a total Irish foreign debt of 50 million pounds.
The UK received 385 million USD of its Marshall Plan aid in the form of loans. Unconnected to the Marshall Plan the UK also received direct loans from the US amounting to 4.6 billion USD. The proportion of Marshall Plan loans versus Marshall Plan grants was roughly 15% to 85% for both the UK and France.
Germany, which up until the 1953 Debt agreement had to work on the assumption that all the Marshall Plan aid was to be repaid, spent its funds very carefully. Payment for Marshall Plan goods, "counterpart funds", were administered by the Reconstruction Credit Institute, which used the funds for loans inside Germany. In the 1953 Debt agreement the amount of Marshall plan aid that Germany was to repay was reduced to less than 1 billion USD. This made the proportion of loans versus grants to Germany similar to that of France and the UK. The final German loan repayment was made in 1971. Since Germany chose to repay the aid debt out of the German Federal budget, leaving the German ERP fund intact, the fund was able to continue its reconstruction work. By 1996 it had accumulated a value of 23 billion Deutsche Mark.
Effects and legacyOne of a number of posters created to promote the Marshall Plan in Europe. Note the pivotal position of the American flag. The blue and white flag between those of Germany and Italy is a version of the Trieste flag with the UN blue rather than the traditional red.
The Marshall Plan was originally scheduled to end in 1953. Any effort to extend it was halted by the growing cost of the Korean War and rearmament. American Republicans hostile to the plan had also gained seats in the 1950 Congressional elections, and conservative opposition to the plan was revived. Thus the plan ended in 1951, though various other forms of American aid to Europe continued afterwards.
The years 1948 to 1952 saw the fastest period of growth in European history. Industrial production increased by 35%. Agricultural production substantially surpassed pre-war levels. The poverty and starvation of the immediate postwar years disappeared, and Western Europe embarked upon an unprecedented two decades of growth that saw standards of living increase dramatically. There is some debate among historians over how much this should be credited to the Marshall Plan. Most reject the idea that it alone miraculously revived Europe, as evidence shows that a general recovery was already underway. Most believe that the Marshall Plan sped this recovery, but did not initiate it. Many argue that the structural adjustments that it forced were of great importance. Economic historians J. Bradford DeLong and Barry Eichengreen call it "history's most successful structural adjustment program." One effect of the plan was that it subtly "Americanized" countries, especially Austria, who embraced United States' assistance, through popular culture, such as Hollywood movies and rock n' roll.
The political effects of the Marshall Plan may have been just as important as the economic ones. Marshall Plan aid allowed the nations of Western Europe to relax austerity measures and rationing, reducing discontent and bringing political stability. The communist influence on Western Europe was greatly reduced, and throughout the region communist parties faded in popularity in the years after the Marshall Plan. The trade relations fostered by the Marshall Plan helped forge the North Atlantic alliance that would persist throughout the Cold War. At the same time, the nonparticipation of the states of the Eastern Bloc was one of the first clear signs that the continent was now divided.
The Marshall Plan also played an important role in European integration. Both the Americans and many of the European leaders felt that European integration was necessary to secure the peace and prosperity of Europe, and thus used Marshall Plan guidelines to foster integration. In some ways this effort failed, as the OEEC never grew to be more than an agent of economic cooperation. Rather it was the separate European Coal and Steel Community, which notably excluded Britain, that would eventually grow into the European Union. However, the OEEC served as both a testing and training ground for the structures that would later be used by the European Economic Community. The Marshall Plan, linked into the Bretton Woods system, also mandated free trade throughout the region.
While some historians today feel some of the praise for the Marshall Plan is exaggerated, it is still viewed favorably and many thus feel that a similar project would help other areas of the world. After the fall of communism several proposed a "Marshall Plan for Eastern Europe" that would help revive that region. Others have proposed a Marshall Plan for Africa to help that continent, and US Vice President Al Gore suggested a Global Marshall Plan. "Marshall Plan" has become a metaphor for any very large scale government program that is designed to solve a specific social problem. It is usually used when calling for federal spending to correct a perceived failure of the private sector.
The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation took the leading role in allocating funds, and the OEEC arranged for the transfer of the goods. The American supplier was paid in dollars, which were credited against the appropriate European Recovery Program funds. The European recipient, however, was not given the goods as a gift, but had to pay for them (usually on credit) in local currency. These payments were kept by the European government involved in a special counterpart fund. This counterpart money, in turn, could be used by the government for further investment projects. Five percent of the counterpart money was paid to the US to cover the administrative costs of the ERP. The Marshall Plan money was in the form of grants that did not have to be repaid. In addition to ERP grants, the Export-Import Bank (an agency of the US government) at the same time made long-term loans at low interest rates to finance major purchases in the US, all of which were repaid.
In the case of Germany, there also were 16 billion marks of debts from the 1920s which had defaulted in the 1930s, but which Germany decided to repay to restore its reputation. This money was owed to government and private banks in the US, France and Britain. Another 16 billion marks represented postwar loans by the US. Under the London Debts Agreement of 1953, the repayable amount was reduced by 50% to about 15 billion marks and stretched out over 30 years, and compared to the fast-growing German economy were of minor impact.
Areas without the Plan
Large parts of the world devastated by World War II did not benefit from the Marshall Plan. The only major Western European nation excluded was Francisco Franco's Spain, which did not overtly participate in World War II. After the war, it pursued a policy of self-sufficiency, currency controls, and quotas, with little success. With the escalation of the Cold War, the United States reconsidered its position, and in 1951 embraced Spain as an ally, encouraged by Franco's aggressive anti-communist policies. Over the next decade, a considerable amount of American aid would go to Spain, but less than its neighbors had received under the Marshall Plan.
While the western portion of the Soviet Union had been as badly affected as any part of the world by the war, the eastern portion of the country was largely untouched and had seen a rapid industrialization during the war. The Soviets also imposed large reparations payments on the Axis allies that were in its sphere of influence. Austria, Finland, Hungary, Romania, and especially East Germany were forced to pay vast sums and ship large amounts of supplies to the USSR. These reparation payments meant the Soviet Union itself received about the same as 16 European countries received in total from Marshall Plan aid.
In accordance with the agreements with the USSR, shipment of dismantled German industrial installations from the west began on March 31, 1946. Under the terms of the agreement the Soviet Union would in return ship raw materials such as food and timber to the western zones. In view of the Soviet failure to do so, the western zones halted the shipments east, ostensibly on a temporary basis, although they were never resumed. It was later shown that the main reason for halting shipments east was not the behavior of the USSR but rather the recalcitrant behavior of France. Examples of material received by the USSR were equipment from the Kugel-Fischer ballbearing plant at Schweinfurt, the Daimler-Benz underground aircraft-engine plant at Obrigheim, the Deschimag shipyards at Bremen-Weser, and the Gendorf powerplant.
The USSR did establish COMECON as a riposte to the Marshall Plan to deliver aid for Eastern Bloc countries, but this was complicated by the Soviet efforts to manage their own recovery from the war. The members of Comecon looked to the Soviet Union for oil; in turn, they provided machinery, equipment, agricultural goods, industrial goods, and consumer goods to the Soviet Union. Economic recovery in the East was much slower than in the West, resulting in the formation of the shortage economies and a gap in wealth between East and West. Finland, which USSR forbade to join the Marshall Plan and which was required to give large reparations to the USSR, saw its economy recover to pre-war levels in 1947. France, which received billions of dollars through the Marshall Plan, similarly saw its average income per person return to almost pre-war level by 1949. By mid-1948 industrial production in Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia had recovered to a level somewhat above pre-war level.
Aid to Asia
From the end of the war to the end of 1953, the US provided grants and credits amounting to $5.9 billion to Asian countries, especially China/Taiwan ($1.051 billion), India ($255 million), Indonesia ($215 million), Japan ($2.44 billion), South Korea ($894 million), Pakistan ($98 million) and the Philippines ($803 million). In addition, another $282 million went to Israel and $196 million to the rest of the Middle East. All this aid was separate from the Marshall Plan.
Canada, like the United States, was little damaged by the war and in 1945 was one of the world's largest economies. It operated its own aid program. In 1948, the US allowed ERP aid to be used in purchasing goods from Canada. Canada made over a billion dollars in sales in the first two years of operation.
The total of American grants and loans to the world from 1945 to 1953 came to $44.3 billion.
Initial criticism of the Marshall Plan came from a number of economists. Wilhelm Röpke, who influenced German Minister for Economy Ludwig Erhard in his economic recovery program, believed recovery would be found in eliminating central planning and restoring a market economy in Europe, especially in those countries which had adopted more fascist and corporatist economic policies. Röpke criticized the Marshall Plan for forestalling the transition to the free market by subsidizing the current, failing systems. Erhard put Röpke's theory into practice and would later credit Röpke's influence for West Germany's preeminent success.
Henry Hazlitt criticized the Marshall Plan in his 1947 book Will Dollars Save the World?, arguing that economic recovery comes through savings, capital accumulation and private enterprise, and not through large cash subsidies. Ludwig von Mises criticized the Marshall Plan in 1951, believing that "the American subsidies make it possible for [Europe's] governments to conceal partially the disastrous effects of the various socialist measures they have adopted". Some critics and Congressmen at the time believed that America was giving too much aid to Europe. America had already given Europe $9 billion in other forms of help in previous years. The Marshall Plan gave another $13 billion, equivalent to about $100 billion in 2010 value.
Criticism of the Marshall Plan became prominent among historians of the revisionist school, such as Walter LaFeber, during the 1960s and 1970s. They argued that the plan was American economic imperialism, and that it was an attempt to gain control over Western Europe just as the Soviets controlled the Eastern Bloc. In a review of West Germany's economy from 1945 to 1951, German analyst Werner Abelshauser concluded that "foreign aid was not crucial in starting the recovery or in keeping it going". The economic recoveries of France, Italy, and Belgium, Cowen found, also predated the flow of US aid. Belgium, the country that relied earliest and most heavily on free market economic policies after its liberation in 1944, experienced swift recovery and avoided the severe housing and food shortages seen in the rest of continental Europe.
Former US Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank Alan Greenspan gives most credit to Ludwig Erhard for Europe's economic recovery. Greenspan writes in his memoir The Age of Turbulence that Erhard's economic policies were the most important aspect of postwar Western Europe recovery, even outweighing the contributions of the Marshall Plan. He states that it was Erhard's reductions in economic regulations that permitted Germany's miraculous recovery, and that these policies also contributed to the recoveries of many other European countries. Its recovery is attributed to traditional economic stimuli, such as increases in investment, fueled by a high savings rate and low taxes. Japan saw a large infusion of US investment during the Korean War.The Postwar Period coin
Noam Chomsky from the left said the Marshall Plan "set the stage for large amounts of private U.S. investment in Europe, establishing the basis for modern transnational corporations".
In popular culture
Alfred Friendly, press aide to the US Secretary of Commerce W. Averell Harriman, wrote a humorous operetta about the Marshall Plan during its first year; one of the lines in the operetta was: "Wines for Sale; will you swap / A little bit of steel for Chateau Neuf du Pape?"
The Spanish comedy film Welcome Mr. Marshall! tells the story of a small Spanish town, Villar del Río, which hears of the visit of American diplomats and begins preparations to impress the American visitors in the hopes of benefiting under the Marshall Plan.
- German reparations for World War II
- GITP (example of a company that is built with Marshall aid)
- ^ "Milestones: 1945–1952 - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved 2016-06-06.
- ^ a b Hogan (1987)
- ^ Anthony Carew, Labour under the Marshall Plan: the politics of productivity and the marketing of management science (Manchester University Press, 1987)
- ^ The Marshall Plan Fifty Years Later (Palgrave MacMillan, 2001) ISBN 9780333929834
- ^ Brookings Institution. "Brookings's Role in the Marshall Plan". brookings.edu.
- ^ Marshallfoundation.org
- ^ Brad Roberts, ed. (1990). The New Democracies: Global Change and U.S. Policy. MIT Press. p. 97. ISBN 9780262680622.
- ^ Geoffrey Roberts (December 2000). "Historians and the Cold War". History Today. Retrieved 2009-02-15.
- ^ Robert J. McMahon (2003-03-27). The Cold War. Very Short Introductions. Oxford University Press. p. 30.
- ^ Volkogonov, Dmitri. Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy. Forum, 1996, p.531.
- ^ Kaplan, Jacob J. 1999. Interviewed by: W. Haven North. 22 March. Arlington, VA: Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training, Foreign Affairs Oral History Project, Foreign Assistance Series, p. 4. Adst.org
- ^ Milward (1984) p. 46
- ^ Mills, Nicolaus (2008). Winning the Peace: the Marshall Plan and America's Coming of Age as a Superpower. Wiley. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-470-09755-7.
- ^ Hogan (1987) pp. 427–45; Barry Eichengreen, The European Economy since 1945: Coordinated Capitalism and Beyond, (2008) pp. 64–73
- ^ Barry Eichengreen, The European Economy since 1945: Coordinated Capitalism and Beyond, (2008) p. 57; West Germany was 6% higher, the other countries 45% higher.
- ^ Quoted in Hogan (1987) p. 189
- ^ Milward (1984) p. 466
- ^ Herman Van der Wee, Prosperity and Upheaval: The World Economy, 1945–1980 (1984) p. 44
- ^ Tom Buchanan, Europe's Troubled Peace 1945–2000, (2006) ch 1
- ^ Allen J. Matusow, Farm Policies and Politics in the Truman Administration (1967) pp 35-36.
- ^ Tony Judt, Postwar: a History of Europe since 1945 (2005) ch 1
- ^ James T. Patterson (1997). Grand expectations: the United States, 1945-1974. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507680-X.
- ^ Michael J. Hogan, The Marshall Plan, p. 30.
- ^ a b Deither Raff, A History of Germany (1988) p. 335
- ^ Marta Schaff, "Marshall Plan" p.1
- ^ Alan S. Milward, The Reconstruction of Western Europe: 1945–51 (1984) pp. 356, 436
- ^ Price, Harry Bayard (1955). The Marshall Plan and Its Meaning. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. p. 264.
- ^ Nicholas Balabkins, "Germany Under Direct Controls: Economic Aspects of Industrial Disarmament 1945–1948", Rutgers University Press, 1964 p. 207
- ^ Balabkins, p. 209
- ^ Pas de Pagaille! Time 28 July 1947.
- ^ Gaddis, We Now Know.
- ^ a b Beschloss 2003, p. 277
- ^ Pas de Pagaille! Time, Jul. 28, 1947.
- ^ Erik Reinert, Jomo K. S. The Marshall Plan at 60: The General's Successful War on Poverty, UN Chronicle (accessed 2008-05-20)
- ^ Michael Wala, The Council on Foreign Relations and American Foreign Policy in the Early Cold War, 1994, Berghahn Books, ISBN 1-57181-003-X pp. 104–105
- ^ Michael J. Hogan The Marshall Plan: America, Britain, and the Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1947–1952, 1987, Cambridge University, ISBN 0-521-37840-0 pp. 34–35
- ^ Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1949 p. 846 online
- ^ Tony Judt, in The Marshall Plan: Fifty Years After, edited by Martin Schain, p. 4.
- ^ a b c d Miller 2000, p. 16
- ^ Wettig 2008, p. 116
- ^ http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=df48c91e-669e-40f0-a01a-4b17aefe551f%2540sessionmgr112&vid=0&hid=127&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%253d%253d&preview=false#db=khh&AN=17998437
- ^ a b c d Wettig 2008, p. 117
- ^ Charles L. Mee, (1984). The Marshall Plan. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 99. ISBN 0-671-42149-2.
- ^ "BBC Correspondent Leonard Miall and the Marshall Plan Speech: An Interview". The Marshall Foundation. September 19, 1977. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
- ^ McCauley, Martin, Origins of the Cold War 1941-1949, Routledge, 2015, ISBN 9781317362470, 244 p., p. 147
- ^ a b c d e f g Wettig 2008, p. 138
- ^ a b c d e Wettig 2008, p. 139
- ^ US Inflation Calculator
- ^ "Carnations — TIME". TIME. 1948-02-09. Retrieved 2009-02-01.
- ^ Schain, p.132
- ^ "Vyshinsky Speech to U.N. General Assembly". Temple University. Retrieved 2009-03-03.
- ^ John R. Lampe; et al. (1990). Yugoslav-American Economic Relations Since World War II. Duke University Press. pp. 28–37.
- ^ Behrman, Greg. Most noble adventure the Marshall plan and the time when America helped save Europe. New York: Free P, 2007.
- ^ a b Wettig 2008, p. 140
- ^ a b c Wettig 2008, p. 146
- ^ a b c d e Wettig 2008, p. 142
- ^ Wettig 2008, p. 148
- ^ a b c Wettig 2008, p. 145
- ^ Wettig 2008, p. 147
- ^ Radmila Sergeevna Ayriyan, "Forming of the New System of International Relations: The Marshall Plan and Republican Party of the USA (1947-1948)." Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 17.12 (2013): 1709-1713. online
- ^ John C. Campbell, The United States in World affairs: 1947-1948 (1948) pp 500-505; quotes on pages 504, 505.
- ^ a b Grogin, p.118
- ^ Ralph H. Smuckler, "The Region of Isolationism." American Political Science Review 47#2 (1953): 386-401. in JSTOR
- ^ Hogan, p.93.
- ^ Harold L. Hitchens, "Influences on the congressional decision to pass the Marshall Plan." Western Political Quarterly 21.1 (1968): 51-68. in JSTOR
- ^ Diane B. Kunz, "The Marshall Plan reconsidered: a complex of motives." Foreign Affairs 76.3 (1997): 162-170
- ^ a b Cini, p.24 in Schain
- ^ Sorel, Eliot, and Pier Carlo Padoan. The Marshall Plan: Lessons Learned for the 21st Century. Paris: OECD, 2008. 15-16. Print.
- ^ a b "President Harry S. Truman's March 17, 1948 address to a Joint Session". Clerk.house.gov. Archived from the original on September 5, 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-09.
- ^ Alan Bullock, Ernest Bevin: Foreign Secretary (1983) pp 368-9; Arnold Offner, Another Such Victory (2002) p 197; Denise M. Bostdorff, Proclaiming the Truman Doctrine (2008) p 51
- ^ Hogan, p.415
- ^ Crafts, Toniolo, p.464
- ^ Van der Eng (1988).
- ^ a b Wasser, Solidelle; Dolfman, Michael (2005). "BLS and the Marshall Plan: the forgotten story". Monthly Labor Review: 44.
- ^ Johnson, Gordon (2002). "Lessons for Today from the Marshall Plan". CIPE.ORG Feature Service: Technical Paper Series: 2.
- ^ a b Wasser, Solidelle; Dolfman, Michael (2005). "BLS and the Marshall Plan: the forgotten story". Monthly Labor Review: 49.
- ^ Johnson, Gordon (2002). "Lessons for Today from the Marshall Plan". CIPE.ORG Feature Service: Technical Paper Series: 2–3.
- ^ a b Hunt, Michael (2016). The World Transformed: 1945 to the Present. New York: Oxford. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-19-937102-0.
- ^ Dennis L. Bark and David R. Gress. A history of West Germany vol 1: from shadow to substance (Oxford 1989) p259
- ^ Dennis L. Bark and David R. Gress. A history of West Germany vol 1: from shadow to substance (Oxford 1989) p260
- ^ Henry C. Wallich. Mainsprings of the German Revival (1955) pg. 348.
- ^ Thomas, Vladimir (February 5, 2017). the world transformed 1945 to the present (Second ed.). Micheal H. Hunt. p. 91.
- ^ "Cornerstone of Steel", TIME, January 21, 1946
- ^ Cost of Defeat, TIME, April 8, 1946
- ^ The President's Economic Mission to Germany and Austria, Report 3 Herbert Hoover, March, 1947 pg. 8
- ^ Frederick H. Gareau "Morgenthau's Plan for Industrial Disarmament in Germany" The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 2 (Jun., 1961), pp. 517-534
- ^ Vladimir Petrov, Money and conquest; allied occupation currencies in World War II. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press (1967) p. 263
- ^ Information bulletin Frankfurt, Germany: Office of the US High Commissioner for Germany Office of Public Affairs, Public Relations Division, APO 757, US Army, January 1952 "Plans for terminating international authority for the Ruhr" , pp. 61-62 (main URL)
- ^ Jonsson, Guðmundur; Snævarr, Sigurður (2008). "Iceland's Response to European Economic Integration". Pathbreakers: Small European Countries Responding to Globalisation and Deglobalisation. Peter Lang. p. 385.
- ^ The Marshall Plan Fifty Years Later, Palgrave MacMillan, United Kingdom, 2001 ISBN 9780333929834
- ^ Timothy W. Guinnane, FINANCIAL VERGANGENHEITSBEWÄLTIGUNG: THE 1953 LONDON DEBT AGREEMENT, p.17
- ^ a b c John Agnew, J. Nicholas Entrikin, The Marshall Plan today: model and metaphor, p.110
- ^ Gary Murphy, In search of the promised land: the politics of post-war Ireland, p.70
- ^ James F. Lydon, The making of Ireland: from ancient times to the present, p.391
- ^ a b Timothy W. Guinnane, FINANCIAL VERGANGENHEITSBEWÄLTIGUNG: THE 1953 LONDON DEBT AGREEMENT, p.28
- ^ "The Marshall Plan and the ERP". Kfw.de. Retrieved 2011-12-09.
- ^ Joseph A. Biesinger, Germany: a reference guide from the Renaissance to the present, p.556
- ^ Detlef Junker, The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War, 1945-1990: 1945-1968, p.306
- ^ J. Bradford De Long, and Barry Eichengreen, "The Marshall Plan: history's most successful structural adjustment program" (NBER No. w3899, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1991) online
- ^ Bischof, Pelinka and Stiefel 174-175
- ^ Marshall Plan style proposals for other parts of the world have been a perennial idea. For instance, Tony Blair and Gordon Brown have referred to their African aid goals as "a Marshall Plan". Guardian.co.uk After the end of the Cold War many felt Eastern Bloc needed a rebuilding plan.
- ^ Harry Bayard Price, The Marshall Plan and its Meaning (1955), p. 106
- ^ Timothy W. Guinnane, "Financial Vergangenheitsbewältigung: The 1953 London Debt Agreement" (Economic Growth Center, Yale University, 2004) pp 17. 20, 21, 27-8, 30 online
- ^ Crafts, Toniolo, p.363
- ^ Zwass, Adam (1989). The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance: the thorny path from political to economic integration. M.E. Sharpe. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-87332-496-0.
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- ^ "Economy — Finland". Nationsencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2009-02-01.
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- ^ "Economic Changes in Eastern Bloc. Since the War". Royal Institute of International Affairs. Retrieved 2010-02-11.
- ^ All data from the official document: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1954 (1955) table 1075 pp 899-902 online edition file 1954-08.pdf
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- ^ U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1954 (1955) table 1075 p. 899
- ^ Erhard, p. 22; also, Zmirak
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- ^ Chomsky, p. 9.
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- Gimbel, John, The origins of the Marshall plan (1976) (reviewed)
- Hein, David. “The Marshall Plan: Conservative Reform as a Weapon of War.” Modern Age: A Quarterly Review 59, no. 1 (Winter 2017): 7–18.https://home.isi.org/marshall-planbr-conservative-reform-abr-weapon-war
- Jackson, Scott. "Prologue to the Marshall Plan: The Origins of the American Commitment for a European Recovery Program," Journal of American History 65#4 (1979), pp. 1043-1068 in JSTOR
- Kipping, Matthias and Bjarnar, Ove. The Americanisation of European Business: The Marshall Plan and the Transfer of Us Management Models (1998) online version
- Lewkowicz, Nicolas. The German Question and the International Order, 1943-48 (Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke and New York) (2010)
- Lewkowicz, Nicolas. The German Question and the Origins of the Cold War (IPOC: Milan) (2008)
- Mee, Charles L. The Marshall Plan: The Launching of the Pax Americana (1984).
- Milward, Alan S. The Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1945–51. (1984).
- Röpke, Wilhelm, Humane Economist,"Biography of Wilhelm Röpke (1899–1966): Humane Economist". Mises.org. Retrieved 2009-08-18.
- Vickers, Rhiannon. Manipulating Hegemony: State Power, Labour and the Marshall Plan in Britain (2000) online edition
- Wallich, Henry Christopher. Mainsprings of the German Revival (1955)
- Wasser, Solidelle F. and Dolfman, Michael L., "BLS and the Marshall Plan: The Forgotten Story: The Statistical Technical Assistance of BLS Increased Productive Efficiency and Labor Productivity in Western European Industry after World War II; Technological Literature Surveys and Plan-Organized Plant Visits Supplemented Instruction in Statistical Measurement", Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 128, 2005
- Wend, Henry Burke. Recovery and Restoration: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Politics of Reconstruction of West Germany's Shipbuilding Industry, 1945–1955 (2001) online version
- Zmirak, John, Wilhelm Röpke: Swiss Localist, Global Economist (ISI Books, 2001)
External linksListen to this article (info/dl)
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Marshall Plan.|
- George C. Marshall Foundation
- The German Marshall Fund of the United States
- Marshall Plan from the National Archives
- Excerpts from book by Allen W. Dulles
- United States Secretary of State James F. Byrnes famous Stuttgart speech, September 6, 1946 The speech marked the turning point away from the Morgenthau Plan philosophy of economic dismantlement of Germany and towards a policy of economic reconstruction.
- Marshall Plan Commemorative Section: Lessons of the Plan: Looking Forward to the Next Century
- "Pas de Pagaille!", Time magazine July 28, 1947
- Luis García Berlanga's critique of the Marshall Plan in a classic Spanish film: Welcome Mr. Marshall!
- Marshall Plan Still Working, 60 Years Later Cincinnati Enquirer December 10, 2006
- Economist Tyler Cowen questions the conventional wisdom surrounding the Plan
- Truman Presidential Library online collection of original Marshall Plan documents from the year 1946 onwards
- "The Marshall Plan as Tragedy", comment on Michael Cox and Caroline Kennedy-Pipe, "The Tragedy of American Diplomacy? Rethinking the Marshall Plan", both published in the Journal of Cold War Studies, vol. 7, no. 1 (Winter 2005) (text of comment on pdf) (text of original article on pdf)
- Speech by George Marshall on June 5, 1947 at Harvard University (original recording)
- As delivered transcript of Marshall Plan speech on June 5, 1947 at Harvard University
|Frozen conflicts|| |
|Foreign policy|| |
|See also|| |
|trade and |
Travel the timeline
- The early years, 1905 to 1919
- Police speed traps and the AA salute
- Early road signs
- Foreign touring
- AA telephone boxes
- The First World War
- 1920 to the Second World War
- Aviation section
- Foreign travel
- AA routes – early development
- The Second World War
- 1950 to the 1990s
- Highland patrols
- Floods and major accidents
- Garage approvals
- Package holidays
- AA routes – growth and computerisation
- The 2000s
- The 2010s
An early AA patrol salutes a passing car
The early years, 1905 to 1918
On 19 June 1905, Charles Jarrott and a group of other like-minded individuals met at the Lyons' Trocadero Restaurant in Shaftesbury Avenue, London. Forming a committee and operating under the initial title of 'The Motorists' Mutual Association', (MMA) they came together to consider ways to overcome the perceived police oppression of early motorists and their use of speed-traps.
Just a week later, on 26 June, the MMA committee voted to change its name to The Automobile Association (AA). They held their first General Meeting as the AA at the Trocadero on 29 June.
The strategy they formed was to employ cycle scouts to patrol main roads and warn members of any police traps ahead. Initially, a motor cyclist and three pedal cyclists were recruited.
As motoring became more popular, so did we – the 100 AA members in 1905 grew to 83,000 by 1914. As AA membership expanded, so did our activities.
The first AA patrols had no uniforms and only basic pedal cycles. They worked at weekends only, patrolling the Brighton and Portsmouth roads where their official duties were laid down as 'indicating dangers on the road and helping motorists who had broken down'. Uniforms were issued from 1909, by which time there were patrols all over the country, including Scotland.
By 1912 there were 950 cyclist patrols.
In 1907 the first AA insurance policy was launched – arranged with Lloyds and with no profit going to the AA. In 1906 a legal defence fund had been set up to ensure legal representation and payment of lawyers' fees. The AA took no more active part in motor insurance until 1967.
To cater for the increased popularity of touring by car, the AA appointed agents and repairers throughout the UK. 1,500 agents were listed in the AA Members' Special Handbook, which first appeared in 1908. The first hotels were listed in the handbook from 1909.
We introduced the first AA routes around 1912 with handwritten details, and by 1929 we were issuing 239,000 routes a year.
From 1912 we started inspecting and classifying hotels. Those receiving our famous AA star classification were included in subsequent editions of the Members' Handbook.
From the start hotel inspectors paid for themselves and accepted no favours. The star system was derived from one used to classify brandy – AA Secretary Stenson Cooke had once been a wine and spirit salesman – with a 3 star hotel being defined as a really decent, average middle class hotel.Back to top
| Police speed traps and the AA salute |
The use of motor cars was initially met with hostility, suspicion and resentment – they were noisy and dirty, and alarmed horses.
Motor cars were initially classed as 'locomotives' (under the Locomotives on Highways Acts 1865) and their speed was limited to 4 miles an hour. They had to be preceded by a footman carrying a red flag.
By 1878 each 'locomotive' had to be preceded at least twenty yards by a person required to assist horses in passing the locomotive, but he no longer had to carry a red flag.
This law was repealed in 1897, with the Locomotives on Highways Act 1896, and the speed limit increased to 14 miles an hour.
The Motor Car Act of 1903 stipulated a speed limit of twenty miles an hour.
The police forces of the day enforced the new speed limit with such vigour and enthusiasm that it was tantamount to persecution.
A trio of officers would choose a rural stretch of straight road and hide in the bushes waiting for the unwary driver.
Penalties imposed by unsympathetic Count Magistrates were harsh. The usual fine was £5 – equal to a month's wages – with the alternative of 4 weeks in jail.
Called 'hedge-hogs' by the early day drivers, this zealous police persecution was killing the new era of motoring.
The AA is born
In response to this police oppression, a London motor dealer, Charles Jarrott (of Charles Jarrott & letts Ltd) started to organise a special staff of cyclists skilled at judging speeds. Bearing red flags they patrolled the Brighton Road to caution those they considered were travelling at a speed which was illegal or dangerous.
Subsequently, in June 1905, a group of enthusiasts, Walter Gibbons, Charles Jarrott, Ludwig Schlentheim and Alfred Harris, banded together under the title 'The Motorists' Mutual Association'. Amongst its objectives was to continue patrolling the Brighton Road, as done by Charles Jarrott & Letts Ltd, and to patrol other main roads as subscriptions are obtained.
Meeting at the Trocadero in Leicester Square, London, they formulated their strategy and agreed a plan of campaign.
Scouts were to 'sniff out' traps along the main roads and wave down unsuspecting drivers approaching the 'measured furlong' at more than 20 mph.
A motorcyclist and three pedal cyclists were engaged to operate the section of Brighton Road to Crawley, while four more cyclists operated the Crawley to Purley stretch, all operating at weekends only.
A month after their inaugural meeting the MMA changed its name to The Automobile Association.
Many first scouts were Fleet Street newsboys. Being energetic and physically fit and using their own bicycles, this weekend activity was seen as a bit of sport and a marked a contrast to delivering newspapers.
John Drew is credited with serving longer than any other of those early scouts and rose through the ranks to become a superintendent. He was buried at Watford Cemetery on the 12 February 1936.
The 'Fairmile Case', 23 September 1905
Some scouts were called on to give defending evidence in courts.
One scout, William Jones, swore an oath that he followed a motorist and AA member Herbert Johnson – accused of exceeding the 20 mph limit – along the Fairmile stretch of the Portsmouth Road, on his bicycle at a speed of no more than 15 or 16 mph.
Johnson was convicted and Jones subsequently arrested and charged with perjury.
The AA staked every penny of its funds to bring about his acquittal. Not only did it face bankruptcy, but more importantly its reputation was put on the line as this was only 3 months after the AA had been founded. Thankfully the case was won by the AA.
Stenson Cooke took office at the age of 31 on 24 August 1905 for an annual salary of £156.
Located at 18 Fleet Street – a borrowed office belonging to a group of solicitors – the AA had 90 subscribing members and a similar figure in the bank.
Stenson Cooke received a knighthood in 1933 for services to motoring. He died in 1942, still in service, at the age of 68.
In 1906 seven roads were being patrolled by the first scouts who were expected to turn out neatly dressed in a cycling costume – knee breeches, stockings, boots, jacket, cap collar and tie.
As late as 1909 patrols were expected to provide their own breeches and boots with only the cap, jacket and ancillary equipment being supplied by the AA.
Red and white badge
Scouts were supplied with a yellow armband with the letters AA on it to be worn on the left arm above the elbow.
They were also supplied with a reversible red and white circular metal disc badge with a leather strap which was buttoned to the front of the scout's coat near the neck.
The badge carried the AA sign together with the scout's own number, and would be shown to all passing drivers, not just AA members.
AA members would be recognised by their membership badges on their motor cars, and thus the scout would be able to provide them with information and assistance if required.
The AA salute
This overt interference with the police's execution of their duties came to an end on 1911 when use of the coloured badge stopped.
From 1911 it became the absence of the salute that would be used to warn of a police speed trap – members were asked to 'stop and ask the reason' whenever a patrol scout failed to salute them.
The Road Traffic Act 1929 was introduced into the House of Lords in November 1929 and the Road Traffic Bill of 1 August 1930 eventually removed the 20 mph speed limit.
Following criticism that to give or acknowledge a salute endangered the patrol and the member, both of whom had to lift a hand from the controls, in 1961 patrols were instructed that it was their duty to salute AA badges but not if there was a risk to themselves.
In 1962 (coincidentally the same year that Mini vans started to replace motorcycles) patrols were relieved altogether of the responsibility of saluting when patrolling.
| Early road signs |
In 1906 we began erecting village signs as local councils didn't consider this their responsibility.
The first AA sign was erected at Hatfield and showed the place name as well as mileages to nearby towns.
We had put up more than 30,000 village signs by 1939, when they became a local authority responsibility.
In fact we were responsible for most signing before 1939 having started to erect direction signs and a variety of warning signs – schools, dangerous bends etc. from 1909.
After the war the AA's focus was on temporary signs for events and AA Signs' distinctive yellow and black colouring for special events remains a familiar sight at the roadside.
| Foreign touring |
As early as 1906 the AA held negotiations with the French authorities about touring facilities and had discussions with shipping companies about transporting members' cars across the channel.
Reciprocal membership arrangements were made with touring clubs in France, Belgium, Holland and Switzerland and from 1908 the handbook included brief information about conditions in different countries.
The foreign touring service really took off in 1908 when one of the AA's founders, Charles Jarrott had his car transported from Folkestone to Boulogne.
By 1914 the AA had an office in France courtesy of the Automobile Club of Nice.
1913, a patrol stands ready to assist beside an AA telephone boxAA telephone boxes
The first AA telephone boxes were put up in 1912 too, initially as shelters for patrols. By 1920 there were 61 boxes and members had a special key to open them – members could make local calls free of charge.
In 1925 a series of 'super' telephone boxes were installed with signposts on the roof which were illuminated at night.
By the early 1960s no more traditional boxes were being built. In their heyday there were almost 1,000 – now only 19 remain, eight of which have a Grade II heritage listing.
The AA archivist has compiled a definitive list of all known AA roadside telephone box locations prior to 1962. You can download the list as a PDF.
Archive photographs of AA boxes on Flickr »
You can find more recent photographs of AA boxes, including many from the list above and some that are in museums on www.redphonebox.info
1912 – First AA roadside 'sentry' boxes installed to give shelter to patrols, who literally patrolled sections of road. Box no.1 was at Newingreen, near Hythe, Kent, on the A20/A261. They were soon equipped with a telephone to allow contact with patrols and members were entitled to make free local calls.
1920 – AA members issued with a key to open boxes, now numbering 61, in the absence of a patrol. Mostly the 'stable door' type with the upper part of the door giving access to the telephone, fire extinguisher and local information; and the lower part to a small fuel supply, first aid equipment and cleaning materials. Most of the boxes were illuminated at night either by gas or electricity operated by a timer switch.
1923 – AA road signs introduced showing the direction and distance to the nearest AA telephone box.
1925 – 'Super' telephone boxes were constructed at major crossroads, equipped with direction signs on a twenty-foot high central pole and illuminated by lamps on the roof.
1927 – New more solid design introduced with greater attention paid to the colour scheme and location to make them fit in with the scenery. Patrols were encouraged to improve the appearance of their 'patch' by planting flowers and bushes, and some even built special features such as flower gardens, mock wells and dovecots.
1938 – 638 telephone boxes in operation throughout the UK.
1947 – AA and RAC phone box keys made interchangeable. New slim-line 'walk in' telephone boxes introduced with older ones being adapted to offer complete protection to members.
1956 – Another change of style with boxes in areas where the AA's radio-controlled road service operated fitted with illuminated door panels. Patrols were now equipped with radio systems fitted to their motorcycle and sidecar so they were contactable while mobile.
1960 – With rising car ownership and the building of the first motorways, supplementary roadside telephone posts installed.
1968 – Wooden sentry boxes phased out – except those with a heritage listing or in areas of scenic beauty – in favour of more modern, pedestal telephones. Keys no longer issued and number of boxes peaked at 787.
1992 – Introduction of slim-line pedestal telephones.
2002 – AA telephones decommissioned as mobile phones made them redundant.
| The First World War |
The AA's relationship with the military can be traced back to its formation in 1905. Founding secretary, Stenson Cooke, had been a Lieutenant of the 1st London Rifle Volunteer Brigade and, for many years, most of the AA patrols were ex-regular or national service soldiers.
During the First World War, AA members were called upon to donate their vehicles to carry the wounded.
Many vehicles were re-fitted with ambulance bodies before being shipped to France to be used on the Western Front.
AA Patrols of military age were also encouraged to enlist into the army. Many Patrols were former soldiers, and so returned to their respective regiments.
8th (Cyclist) Battalion of the Essex Regiment
Recognising the special training that the AA Patrols had received, Stenson Cooke sought to have them transferred to the Army as one group. The War Office gave authority to raise two companies for the 8th (Cyclist) Battalion of the Essex Regiment (Headquartered in Colchester). Stenson Cooke was given the commission as Captain of one of the Companies.
In all 110 men joined the Battalion, with a further 340 AA employees joining other regiments. Most of the men saw service on the Western Front, with at least 20 being killed in action.
A Roll of Honour was produced by the AA in 1915 in recognition of the bravery of all the Patrols that had volunteered and (re-)enlisted into the army.
An original Roll of Honour was donated to the AA by Mrs Violet Eleanor Race, the daughter of Chief Inspector (James) Henry Shepherd, who enlisted with the 8th (Cyclist) Battalion of the Essex Regiment.
During the winters of 1935 and 1936 the AA made signs for ice-bound roads
1920 to the Second World War
Following the end of the war motorists were being advised to use a British fuel, benzole – derived from coal tar – as this was much more plentiful and cheaper than imported petrol.
Fuel distribution was inefficient though with members buying 50 gallon drums form local stockists and storing these in the garden at home.
So in 1920 the AA opened the first roadside filling station. Located at Aldermaston in Berkshire, this had a 500 gallon storage tank and a hand-operated pump.
The AA had opened 10 more similar filling stations by 1932, at which time the petrol companies had seen the commercial potential and the AA withdrew.First motorcycles
By 1922 the patrol service had been restored to its pre-war strength. After the war patrols started to use motorcycle combinations equipped with tools, spare parts and fuel. Cycle patrols still existed, and they carried out a number of roadside repairs as well.
1923 – 274 patrols with motorcycle combinations and 376 cyclists
1938 – 1,500 motorcycle and 850 cycle patrolsRoad safety
When arterial roads came into use in the 1920s the AA put up reflective marker posts to mark the road edges. These carried the AA logo and red or whit reflectors depending on whether they were on the nearside or offside of the road.
When weather conditions became really treacherous, AA signs and fog flares were deployed to help motorists.Membership
AA membership grew steadily between the wars:
- 1920 – 100,000 members
- 1925 – 250,000 members
- 1934 – 500,000 members and around 1.5 million cars on the road
- 1936 – 600,000 members
- 1938 – 700,000 members
- 1939 – 725,000 members and 2 million cars on the road
Severe winters in 1935 and 1936 affected motorists right across the British Isles and led to the introduction of a special 'Ice Bound Road' sign.Back to top
| Aviation section |
There was growing interest in private flying in the late 1920s. Some members were joining flying clubs or even buying their own planes and in 1929 the AA formed an Aviation Section, initially to survey landing grounds and provide information about changes or obstructions.
The AA produced the first air-route maps and was the first to supplement telephone and post by dropping messages to patrols from aircraft.
In 1931 the AA started the first weather information service for pilots with reports broadcast every hour. Recognising its value, the Air Ministry took over the service in 1933.
The AA Aviation section continued until the outbreak of the Second World War.
The famous aviator Amy Johnson worked with the AA to plan her 1932 World Record flight to Cape Town in a De Havilland Puss Moth.
During the 1920s the AA used an airship for traffic spotting and in 1928 used two light aircraft to support the growing number of aviators joining the AA.
In 1957 the AA bought a twin-engine biplane – a De Havilland Dragon Rapide – for aerial photography, and to observe traffic flows on roads including the new M1. The same aircraft was used to drop supplies to snow-bound villages in Scotland.
In 1963 the AA acquired a Piper PA-23 Apache 160 fitted with a camera to take images used to help compile routes maps and other touring information.
By the 1970s a larger aircraft was required to repatriate members taken ill or injured overseas and requiring urgent medical treatment.
The AA stopped using its own planes in 1987, but continued until 1994 to repatriate sick or injured members from abroad through a partnership with the St John Ambulance Aeromedical Service.
| Foreign travel |
Foreign travel increased again after the First World War, and the AA worked with touring clubs across Europe to establish the Alliance Internationale de Tourisme (AIT) with a view to simplifying procedures for foreign travel.
The AA was able to negotiate reductions in shipping rates to the continent while the complex documentation of the time was managed by uniformed AA officers at the major ports.
Travel to the eastern Europe was difficult in the 1920s and the documentation required was the exclusive preserve of the RAC. In 1927, to break this stranglehold, an AA mission was sent on a 6,000 mile journey around the clubs in the relevant countries to persuade them to work with the AIT and the AA. Similar approaches were made in Spain, through King Alfonso, and in Italy, through Mussolini, to ease travel arrangements for AA members.
| AA routes – early development |
The very earliest AA patrols were often called upon to give verbal advice and directions. The AA routes service grew out of these informal beginnings with the first paper routes – hand written on route cards – being introduced around 1912.
These early 'routes' were personalised itineraries to meet individual requirements for directions combined with a limited range of printed town plans and booklets of 'day drives'.
After the First World War, the AA set up a touring routes section, and the style of routes issued became more professional.
As membership grew so did the demand for routes. By the early 1920s routes consisted of a set of handwritten cards, each giving details of the route between two different points. Information about local places of interest was written on the reverse.
As demand increased typing and duplication of cards was introduced – by the late 1920s, 7,000 different cards or sheets were being printed, and more than half a million routes were being compiled every year.
By 1926 a tour was available as well as a route. Tours could take several days and the information provided included remarks about scenery and advice about ferry crossings.
'Strip maps' were first added to route sheets around this time as a further aid to navigation. These were further improved in the 1930s when progressive mileages were added.
Demand for routes peaked at around 600,000 per year, but then declined rapidly during wartime and development ceased.
Foreign routes service
The 'Foreign Routes Service', at first covering France only, was introduced in 1925.
Initially two members of staff were sent abroad to 'log' the main routes, from which the first printed routes were built up.
Route sheets were handwritten from maps with additional information being obtained from associated clubs overseas. AA members were also asked to report on journeys they had made.
Gradually the route network expanded, eventually to cover all types of journeys, including overland to India, Africa and even beyond.
| The Second World War |
Hundreds of AA men had joined the Supplementary Reserve of the Corps of Military Police in 1938, and within days of the outbreak of war were controlling the landing of the British Expeditionary Force.
Many volunteered for other units too.
Back at home, patrols on the road had to wear steel helmets and their motorcycles were painted khaki. Patrols acted as observers working in close liaison with the various command HQs.
Direction posts and village name signs were taken down and petrol rationing was introduced.
In 1961 Mini vans begin to replace motorcycle patrols
1950 to the 1990s
After the Second World War, we led the protest against petrol rationing, which was finally lifted in 1950. It was a campaign that reflected our traditional role of championing motorists' rights.
The introduction of two-way radio after the Second World War saw the 1949 launch of a night-time breakdown service in the London area, which was gradually extended to cover most of Britain.
The Queen's Coronation on 2 June 1953 was 18 months in the planning and while the police were engaged with security arrangements, the AA – whose then president was Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh – was asked to manage the road signing, parking and traffic control.
The new-look square AA logo was launched in 1966.
AA Insurance Services was formed in 1967 after a number of cut-price companies had crashed in the 1960s. Motorists wanted insurance cover from an organisation that they could trust, and they turned to the AA in their thousands.
Following tests in Oxford in 1961 roadside pedestal telephone boxes telephone boxes were introduced from 1968.
AA Roadwatch came into being in 1973 with the advent of commercial radio in the UK.
Motorcycle combinations for AA patrols – introduced from 1920 together with roadside telephones – were replaced by 4-wheeled vehicles by 1968. But solo motorcycles were re-introduced in 1972 to combat urban congestion.
In October 1973 AA Relay was launched, guaranteeing to transport any seriously broken-down vehicle – together with driver, passengers, luggage and trailer or caravan – to any destination in Britain.
1973 also saw us move our headquarters from Leicester Square, London – the AA had moved to the area in 1908 and occupied premises in New Coventry Street in 1929 – to Fanum House in Basingstoke, Hampshire.
The AA computer system, Command and Control, started to replace paper-based operations from 1986. The system's award-winning successor, AAHELP, together with automatic vehicle-location technology, using global positioning satellites, has been key to achieving our current speed of response at the roadside.Membership milestones
- 1950 – 1 million members
- 1951 – HRH Duke of Edinburgh becomes AA President
- 1954 – 1.5 million members
- 1955 – AA Golden Jubilee
- 1957 – 2 million members
- 1960 – 2.5 million members
- 1961 – AA patrols no longer salute while on the move
- 1962 – first 4-wheeled breakdown vans introduced
- 1963 – 3 million members
- 1969 – 4 million members
- 1973 – 5 million members, AA Relay Service introduced
- 1974 – HRH Duke of Kent becomes AA President
- 1982 – Home Start Service set up
- 1987 – 7 million members
- 1994 – 8 million members
- 1995 – 1998 – AA highstreet shops closed
- 1998 – 9 million members
Publishing activities expanded rapidly during the 1990s, producing a growing range of maps, atlases and travel guides to worldwide destinations as well as many British titles.
In 1992 the AA driving school was launched, initially in Southern England.
In 1999 we set a new standard for the breakdown and recovery industry, and came first in the annual JD Power survey of UK roadside assistance providers.
Also in 1999 the AA helped to create Great Britain's first national network of helicopter ambulances when it announced a 3 year, multi-million-pound sponsorship of the National Association of Air Ambulance Services (NAAAS). The AA's support recognised the fact that air ambulances have a major role to play in reducing the number of fatalities on British roads, as nearly half of all air ambulance call-outs are as a result of road accidents.
Our online Route planner service first appeared in October 1999 and served its 1 millionth route by the end of April 2000, only 6 months later.
In 1999 AA members voted overwhelmingly in favour of the AA demutualising and joining the Centrica group in a £1.1 billion acquisition.Back to top
| Highland patrols |
The first 4-wheeled vehicles used by patrols were Land Rovers, deployed in London in 1949.
These were extremely useful and soon employed in other parts of the country, especially in rough terrain such as the Scottish Highlands.
A dedicated Highland Patrol Service was set up in 1953 to deal with bad weather conditions, and was put to the test when severe blizzards hit Scotland in January 1958, stranding dozens of motorists.
Conditions were so severe that AA aid even included dropping emergency food packs from AA aircraft.
Described at the time as 'the troopers of the north' and operating mainly beyond the Caledonian Canal, the job of the Highland Patrol was arduous in winter, as blizzards blocked roads and stranded vehicles.
Often attending isolated breakdowns in remote areas and covering some of the highest classified roads in the UK, the patrols had to be both hardy and resourceful.
AA members phoning for assistance from an AA telephone box would be put through to the Inverness 'Road Service Centre' (a control room in a large static caravan at Millburn, Inverness) who would relay instructions to a patrol.
Highland patrols didn't just help motorists. The AA's two-way short-wave radio system provided vital communications for remote Highland communities during harsh winters, and many a crofter welcomed a patrol carrying food parcels after days of heavy snow.
Return of the Highland patrol »
Archive pictures (AA Flickr) »
| Floods and major accidents |
Because of the nature of their work, AA patrols are often the first on the scene at major accidents or disasters.
Serious flooding in Lynmouth in 1952 involved the AA's biggest rescue operation, followed 6 months later by the major east coast floods when patrols helped to rescue people, animals and endangered property. AA people helped clear roads of debris as the floods receded.
In the 1980s AA patrols were involved in rescue operations at the Clapham rail crash in 1988, the Lockerbie disaster in 1988, and at the air crash on the M1 at Kegworth in 1989.
In recent years the AA has been involved in flood and severe weather response in a number of locations – Gloucester and Tewkesbury in 2007, and many places since including York, Sheffield and Cumbria.
The increase in severe weather events prompted the AA in 2008 to establish a Special Operations Response Team (AA SORT), a specialist resource equipped and professionally trained to undertake vehicle recovery in floods and other severe weather.
| Garage approvals |
The AA had a close relationship with garages from the very earliest days, as anywhere that stocked tyres and batteries, and could carry out repairs, was vitally important to the early motorists.
Garages played a key part in the development of the AA and supplemented the work of the first patrols – they reported on road conditions, passed messages to drivers and were instrumental in setting up the system of village name signs.
Known as road agents, garages also took part in a scheme to warn motorists of speed traps – garages displayed a pole with a moveable ball, painted yellow with black AA letters. Raising the ball to the top of the pole indicated to passing motorists that a speed trap was operating in the area.
As early as 1908 road agents were listed in the AA handbook and members encouraged to use them. Good relations with garages were important and as patrols carried out more roadside 'first aid' they were careful not to take business away from the trade. Cars that couldn't be fixed at the roadside were towed to the nearest garage – at the member's expense until 1946 when it became a free service.
Unfortunately the quality of work in many garages fell to a very low standard in the post-war period leading the AA to introduce the Garage Plan in 1968. Garages were inspected and appointed to one of three grades, with the results being published in the AA handbook – 4,000 garages were listed in the 1970 edition. By the end of the 1970s complaints against garages had greatly reduced.
As garage services and members' needs evolved, so did the garage approval scheme. In 1983 a new scheme identifying the more specialised repairers was instituted and by the end of 1991, 6,000 garages had an AA appointment.
| Package holidays |
Foreign travel took some time to recover after the Second World War, but during 1952 111,000 members applied for car ferry bookings.
The AA pushed to expand opportunities for overseas motoring and in 1957 reached agreement with the USSR to allow motorists to visit Russia.
By the 1970s overseas travel had become more affordable and many people were now taking package holidays by plane. The AA became part of a consortium which owned Thomas Cook, and arranged holidays around the world in conjunction with local motoring clubs
Holiday packages became more elaborate and the brand name Argosy was introduced. By 1978 there were 41 AA travel agencies, one of the largest groups in the country.
Towards the end of the 1980s as the package holiday market became ever more competitive, the AA decided to scale down this side of its activities and concentrate on motoring holidays in Europe.
The AA Five Star Overseas Touring Service – now known as European Breakdown Cover – was introduced in 1964. Five Star cover made available assistance provided by continental motoring clubs, co-ordinated through an AA centre, initially in Boulogne and later in Paris.
Later the AA, the Dutch (ANWB) and the German (ADAC) motoring clubs created ARC Transistance with a new centre opened at Lyon in France in 1993.
| AA routes – growth and computerisation |
By 1948 AA membership returned to the pre-war level of over 700,000, and demand for routes increased rapidly again, particularly when petrol rationing ceased in 1950.
'Places of interest' information was dropped at this time when details of the return route were added to the reverse of the route sheets.
By 1965, with membership exceeding 3.5 million, annual demand for routes exceeded 1.25 million.
The demand for overseas routes information increased too from about 40,000 in 1949 to a peak of 221,387 requests in 1965.
The expansion of the motorway network reduced the need for strip maps, and so in 1968 we introduced the unique AA 'Throughroute' maps. Based on some 50 different towns, each showed the AA recommended route from that town to over 500 destinations. These helped reduce demand for individually tailored routes.
In 1975 'Throughroute' maps were also introduced for Europe showing major routes from each of the main Channel ports. A charge was made for these for the first time in 1976.
The Home Routes Service was fully computerised in 1984, followed in 1987 by the Overseas Routes Service.
Thousands of printed route sheets were transferred onto computer, so that routes could be generated automatically without the need for staff to 'pick' and collate each route – a single route would often include many separate sheets.
In 1990 the Home and Overseas routes services were amalgamated for the first time.
A single routes processing – compiling and posting routes – unit was established in Bristol, and the research team became part of the cartographic department in Basingstoke.
The research team was responsible for gathering data, usually by driving and recording road layouts, signposting and places of interest. A team of some 15 staff were dedicated to this function during the 1990s.
In 1999, 250,000 routes were generated for the members' routes service.
In 1999 the first AA route was calculated using the new website, and for the first time AA routes were available free to members and non-members alike.
This development completely changed the way customers accessed travel information and inevitably the routes processing unit in Bristol closed shortly afterwards.
The research team continued collecting information 'on the ground', to ensure that what the customer saw on the route plan was what they would see on the road. This approach was, and still is, unique to the AA and ensures that AA routes give directions like people give directions – 'turn right at the Red Lion pub signposted Reading'.
In the first full year online (2000) a total of 4.5 million routes were generated – 18 times the number produced in the final year of postal operations.
Volumes have grown rapidly since routes went online – in 2007 the AA website generated 171 million routes.
Research methods developed quickly as GPS location technology matured – accurate coordinates of road features identified in the field could be transferred immediately to the database.
In 2005 full 'street-level' routeing for Britain was incorporated into the online Route planner so that it is now possible to calculate a route to/from any street or postcode.
More detailed mapping was also added at this time – users can now access a detailed map of any part of the route itinerary, and can quickly link to places of interest and places to stay en route.
AA Route planner celebrated its 1 billionth online route in 2010.
For over 10 years AA Route planner has been providing free online driving directions to motorists, in recent times averaging 16 million route requests per month.
Between 2000 and 2010 the AA Route planner helped motorists travel approximately 125 billion miles. This astounding distance is the equivalent of driving around the world over 5.5 million times, or 700 round trips to the Sun.
JD Power named us the UK's top-ranked roadside assistance provider in 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005.
We topped the 2002 'Which?' survey of breakdown organisations too.
The AA Motoring Trust charity was created in 2002 to carry on the AA's long-standing role of championing the interests and safety of Britain's road users.
In 2003, all AA breakdown patrols were issued with state-of-the-art roadside diagnostic equipment. Known as VIxEN (Vehicle Information x Electronic Notebook) the laptop computer allowed patrols to plug into a car's electronics to diagnose the cause of a breakdown as well as access the AA's wealth of technical support information and breakdown deployment details. VIxEN later won 'Autocar' idea of the year award 2003.
In July 2004 we introduced our industry-leading AA Telephone Savings Account.
On 1 October 2004 the AA left the Centrica group, following its acquisition for £1.75 billion by the private equity firms CVC and Permira.Back to top 2005
AA financial services launched the Internet Savings Account, the Guaranteed Equity Bond and the One-Year Fixed Rate Savings Account.
In May we launched the "You've got a friend", tales from the roadside advertising campaign, highlighting real–life patrol stories. The 'AA Team' was unleashed on the nation, to promote motor insurance.
On 29 June the AA celebrated its centenary with a black-tie dinner in London for motoring industry executives, business partners, journalists and selected employees.
Vehicle Recovery System (VRS) was introduced on all new patrol vehicles. This stowaway recovery trailer can be deployed from the back of the van ready for a car to be loaded in less than 3 minutes and means that the patrol can tow your car to a garage if it can't be fixed at the roadside.Back to top 2006
A range of new insurance products was launched at the beginning of 2006 including Motorcycle Insurance, Cherished Car Insurance, Pet Insurance and Business Insurance.
In March we celebrated the signing of our millionth motor insurance customer, and in June bought insurance broker Direct Choice and launched Commercial Vehicle Insurance.
AA Publishing became the first publisher in the UK to highlight the locations of all fixed speed cameras in its 2006 atlases, while in complete contrast, Patrolman Pete children's books and merchandise were unveiled.
The AA won two Fleet Excellence awards – 'Best Service Supplier' and 'Best Vehicle Recovery''– and was named 'Best Breakdown Service' at the Fleet News awards, for the fourth year in a row.
Synovate named the AA the most recognised provider of car loans, and in February, AA Visa was named 'Best Known Credit Card Co – brand' at the national Credit Card Awards, and in April the AA was named 'Best Breakdown Recovery Service' by readers of Scottish Auto Trader.
Reader's Digest magazine named the AA the 'Most Trusted Brand' in UK motoring in the same month.
In March we launched AA Members Club, a package of discounts and incentives available exclusively to our members.
AA Publishing unveiled AA Car Essentials – 25 motoring products with key links to safety and touring – and launched a new range of travel guides – the Weekend Escapes series.
The AA joined the Nectar loyalty programme in June and entered the legal products market for the first time with the launch of will–writing and conveyancing services.
The AA, Visit England, Visit Wales and Visit Scotland jointly agreed a common standard for grading hotels and other guest accommodation across the UK.Back to top 2007
The AA re-established an in-house motoring campaigns and policy expert team, AA Public Affairs at the beginning of 2007. The work of the AA Motoring Trust was taken on by the IAM Motoring Trust a new body created within the Institute of Advanced Motorists.
In June a new company, Acromas, was created bringing together Saga and the AA, two of the UK's strongest and most trusted brands. The transaction valued the combined Group at £6.15 billion.
AA Patrols on bicycles appeared for the first time at a number of summer events this year including Wimbledon.
We launched AA Fuel Assist in November 2007 to help with the growing problem of filling with the wrong fuel. Technicians using specially developed vehicles can drain, flush and replenish vehicle fuel systems on the spot, and contaminated fuel is recycled through an environment-friendly disposal process.
We were judged the top UK breakdown provider by Which?Back to top 2008
The AA-Populus motoring opinion panel was launched in April. Monthly surveys on key transport issues frequently get more than 18,000 responses and help to shape AA policy and campaigns, lead by AA President Edmund King who joined the AA in January from the RAC Foundation.
The AA Charitable Trust for Road Safety and the Environment was registered in July.
Breakdown patrols started using motorbikes to attend breakdowns in some cities for the first time since the mid 1990s. AA bike patrols carry a large range of tools and target quick-fix breakdowns to combat urban congestion and help keep the traffic moving.
A Special Operations Response Team, AA SORT was established in 2008 to supplement the main patrol force. Teams trained to undertake vehicle rescue and recovery in floods and other severe weather use specially equipped and adapted Land Rovers.
The AA was judged top UK breakdown provider by Which? for the second year running.Back to top 2009
The AA Charitable Trust launched 'Drive Smart' which initially offered 2000 totally free eco-safe driver training packages to new drivers 'most at risk'.
The AA acquired DriveTech – now known as AA DriveTech – the UK's leading provider of driver training, assessment and driver awareness schemes.
Our business services team re-launched AA Accident Management – a one-stop, outsourcing service for vehicle fleet operators designed to help reduce the cost of accidents.
The AA acquired Preston-based AutoWindshields – now AA AutoWindshields – in December 2009 with ambitious plans to expand it nationally, and turn it into one of the UK's leading glass repair and replacement services.
A hat trick of awards as the August issue of Which? magazine named us best breakdown provider for the third year running.
Our first app for the iPhone – a travel guide to London – was launched in July 2009.
| Severe weather |
We rescued more than a third of a million drivers during the cold spell between 17 December 2009 and 8 January 2010. Monday 21 December was the AA's busiest day for 10 years with 22,000 breakdowns, but this record was broken only two weeks later, on Monday 4 January 2010, when we attended more than 25,000.
Christmas day 2009 was the busiest for 20 years with more than 4,000 breakdowns.
20 December 2010, the AA's busiest day ever due to snow and ice
By 2010 the amount of money deposited with AA Savings was so large (£4bn) it made us one of the leading players in the direct savings market, and larger than the M&S and Sainsbury's banks.
The AA Charitable Trust launched Drive Confident in March, offering free course to help improve confidence and skills for qualified drivers.
The patrols' laptop computer system VIxEN was replaced in 2010 by AADIS – Diagnostics Information System. AADIS integrates previously separate route guidance (sat nav) and Mobile data terminal (for breakdown job details) with advanced diagnostics as well as giving patrols access to online services.
AA Financial Services won the Moneyfacts award for "most competitive term assurance direct provider" for the 4th year in succession.
AA breakdown cover remains a Best Buy recommendation from Which? with the highest satisfaction score of 84% and coming top for fixing cars at the roadside.
AA Streetwatch was launched in October 2010 when almost 2,000 AA members surveyed potholes, blocked drains, worn road markings, and other defects in their local area.
AA Home Emergency Response launched in October with a marketing campaign featuring Fawlty Towers star John Cleese. The new service provides a network of approved tradesmen to deal with everything in the home from burst pipes to broken boilers.
Dedicated 'key assist' and 'battery assist' services were launched – Key assist technicians can replace or repair a wide range of car keys, while AA Battery Assist can fit a new battery at a time and location convenient for you.
| Severe weather |
Less than a year after records tumbled over Christmas 2009, Monday 20 December 2010 was the busiest day ever in the AA's history. Snow, ice and widespread freezing daytime temperatures resulted in two days' worth of breakdowns by mid-afternoon, and a total for the day of 28,000 breakdowns.
We purchased BSM in February following its move into administration, bringing together the UK's two biggest driving schools. BSM and AA Driving School continue to operate as separate businesses.
AA DriveTech acquired Harrogate-based Intelligent Data Systems, a leading provider of driver risk management products and services, including driver licence verification, for business fleet managers.
Later in the year AA DriveTech acquired Powys-based Nationwide 4x4 Ltd, a leading provider of driver training and events for drivers of off-road vehicles and machinery.
Throughout the Autumn, viewers of Channel 5 could see a team of AA Driving School instructors tackle qualified drivers with serious driving problems in 'Dangerous Drivers' School'.
Total downloads of AA smartphone apps passed the 1.5 million mark.
| Awards |
AA Financial Services won the Moneyfacts award for "best Internet Account Provider" for our online savings product.
In September the AA was ranked the best breakdown provider by Which? The AA came first, securing 'Which? Recommended Provider' status.
In February AA Insurance turned to technology to launch a new 'pay how you drive' policy called AA Drivesafe, which used a telematic device in your car to measure how safely you drive. [This product was withdrawn in October 2014]
In spring 2012 we introduced free membership upgrades – AA Silver and Gold – which provide access to a range of breakdown cover enhancements for loyal AA Breakdown members.
Members who break down in the Highlands will now once again be met by the welcome sight of a 'Highland Patrol'. This iconic name has been brought back in the Queen's Diamond Jubilee year at the request of local patrols, almost 60 years after it was first introduced.
AA World gave the whole family a chance to have a free driving experience at this year's Silverstone Classic – powered by the AA. Staged at the home of the British Grand Prix, the annual Silverstone Classic is the world's biggest classic motor-racing event.
September 2012 – The AA retains "Recommended Provider" status in the Which? magazine Breakdown Providers survey in both third-party cover and carmaker-branded cover. The second year running the AA has received the recommendation since its introduction by Which?. We were previously awarded "Best Buy" recommendation for five consecutive years.
November 2012 – The AA Charitable Trust was awarded a prestigious Prince Michael International Road Safety Award for the development and promotion of its free 'Drive Confident' courses, which are run through the AA Driving School.
| 2012 in numbers |
March 2013 – AA patrols were kept particularly busy during March 2013 which was one of the coldest on record, dominated by easterly winds.
Between 10 and 12 March very cold air for the time of year and strong north-easterly winds caused severe drifting snow in southern coastal counties. Motorists spent the night in vehicles in Sussex and Kent, schools were closed, and there was disruption at Gatwick.
Snow in the south was followed by severe flooding in parts of Devon and Cornwall on the 21 and 22, and sustained heavy snowfalls in north Wales, northern England, parts of Northern Ireland and south-west Scotland between 22 and 24 March. Lying snow remained until early April in some areas.
As Easter approached, the AA said Easter may turn into a 'stay at home' weekend for many as the freezing conditions could affect travel plans.
June 2013 – AA DriveTech, through their partner London Probation Trust, was been announced as a leading national provider of drink driving rehabilitation courses.
July 2013 – the AA launches a new car buying website, AACars, powered by VCARS. Every buyer is provided with an AA Cars History Check up front so that they can have peace of mind regarding the car's history and authenticity.
August 2013 – The AA is named top break down provider by Which? The AA came top and was awarded 'recommended provider' status – the eighth year in a row the AA has held this recommendation or the previous 'Best Buy' one.
August 2013 – Trials start of a 'universal' spare wheel to allow members to continue their journey with minimal disruption. The innovative wheel is the first of its kind in the UK and fits the majority of modern cars with a 5-stud wheel.
October 2013 – The AA is among the first 50 companies in the UK to commit its support to the military through the new Armed Forces Corporate Covenant. The covenant is a voluntary pledge of support from businesses and charities to the armed forces community.Back to top 2014
Winter 2013–14 – January was the wettest since records began for south-east and central southern England, with more than twice the average rainfall – parts of the Somerset levels and the Thames valley were under water for weeks, while strong winds, high tides and large waves brought coastal flooding and damage on the east coast in early December 2013 and in the south-west in January and February 2014 – the main railway line and part of the sea wall in Dawlish was destroyed in early February. Somerset Council and Sedgmoor District declared a 'major incident' in late January.
Over the period AA breakdown patrols and our Special Operations Response Team (SORT) with their flood adapted Land Rovers dealt with more than 4,500 flood-related breakdowns, many of which were stuck in water or the result of driving through flood water.
January 2014 – The AA acquired Dutch-based VVCR of Rijssen, Holland. With more and more organisations looking to source a consistent European or global approach to occupational road risk, VVCR, which will remain a separate legal entity, is ideally placed to deliver through its established international network.
March 2014 – The AA and the AA Charitable Trust launched a national 'Think Bikes!' awareness campaign with support from British Cycling and The Motorcycle Industry Association. Two million free stickers were distributed to drivers as a reminder to do a double-take in their mirrors for cycles and motorcycles in their blind spots. The campaign featured a video – now you see me.
April 2014 – The AA and Populus jointly published 'A portrait of motoring Britain', covering a spectrum of six types of motorist, from the motoring for joy and drive to survive groups through to the rogues and the 'cars are a necessary evil' types.
April 2014 – As the first all-lanes running 'smart' motorway opened (M25 J23–25) the AA voiced significant reservations because permanent hard shoulder removal means that breakdowns and other emergencies could now take place in a live traffic lane rather than on the hard shoulder.
April 2014 – AA Insurance launched Home Insurance Plus, a new comprehensive home insurance policy that aims to overcome homeowner concerns about what may be covered.
26 June 2014 – Shares in the AA started trading on the London Stock Exchange as the AA became a public company for the first time in its 109 year history.Back to top 2015
January 2015 – The AA Charitable Trust's 'Think Bikes!' campaign, which launched last March goes global with support from the FIA, the world motoring organisation.
April 2015 – The AA launched its first professional mobile tyre fitting service, AA Tyres.
March 2015 – AA wins 'Fleet Supplier of the Year' award at prestigious annual Fleet News Awards.
June 2015 – The AA saluted its heroes of the roadside with the launch of its first TV advertising campaign in a decade.
July 2015 – The AA launched a brand new partnership with Bank of Ireland UK (BOI UK) to provide all of the AA Financial Services products.
August 2015 – The AA was awarded Which? Recommended Provider status for the 10th year in a row
October 2015 – The AA launches The AA Garage Guide and Automyze, a free digital motoring management system.
The AA Driving School launched 'Drive Motorway' with the AA Charitable Trust offering 2,000 free 'Drive Motorway' 2-hour courses to help drivers overcome a fear of motorway driving.
December 2015 – The AA announced a partnership with transportation information provider Inrix whose real-time traffic data now powers the traffic news on the AA website and the AA app.
In the New Year's Honours list 2016, AA President Edmund King was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) for his services to road safety.Back to top