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Blue 3 wheeled disabled car insurance

Segway PT
Health insurance exchange temple city car Segway PT
Type Electric vehicle
Wheels Two
Inventor Dean Kamen
Introduced 2001
Chief engineer Doug Field
Dynamics engineers David Robinson
John Morrell
Jon Stevens
Jon Pompa
Programmers Chuck Herscovici
Gerry Rigdon
Michael Kaufman
Eric Pribyl
Jim Dattalo
Electrical engineers Phil Lemay
Mike Gansler
JD Heinzmann
Jason Sachs
Larry Liberman
Chris Kastel
Zeta Electronics
Mechanical engineers Ron Reich
Mike Martin
Andrew Steiner
Ray Debruin
Patrick Kelly
Jeremy Lund
Mike Slate
JR Holt
Industrial designers Scott Waters
Tao Chang

The Segway PT is a two-wheeled, self-balancing, battery-powered electric vehicle invented by Dean Kamen. It is produced by Segway Inc. of New Hampshire. The name Segway is derived from the word segue (/ˈsɛɡ-weɪ/), meaning smooth transition. PT is an abbreviation for personal transporter (the old suffix HT was an initialism for human transporter).

Computers, sensors, and electric motors in the base of the Segway PT keep the device upright when powered on with balancing enabled. The rider commands the PT to go forward or backward by shifting their weight forward or backward on the platform. The PT uses gyroscopic sensors and accelerometer-based leveling sensors to detect the resulting changes in its pitch angle and, to maintain balance, it drives its wheels forward or backward as needed to return its pitch to upright. In the process, the rider establishes and then maintains a desired speed by modulating the extent and duration of their fore/aft weight shifts. To turn and steer, the rider shifts the handlebar to the left or right. The PT responds by adjusting the speeds of the wheels in opposite directions causing the PT to yaw and, if not traveling forward or backward, turn in place. At speed, the amount of shift of the handlebar corresponds to the amount of left or right lean required by the rider to balance themselves on the platform during a turn.

The maximum speed of the Segway PT is 12.5 miles per hour (20.1 km/h). The product is capable of covering 24 mi (39 km) on a fully charged lithium-ion battery, depending on terrain, riding style, and the condition of the batteries.[1]


  • 1 Early history and pre-release marketing
  • 2 Technology
  • 3 Uses
  • 4 Use and regulation by country
    • 4.1 Asia
      • 4.1.1 Bahrain
      • 4.1.2 China
      • 4.1.3 Hong Kong
      • 4.1.4 India
      • 4.1.5 Israel
      • 4.1.6 Malaysia
      • 4.1.7 Japan
      • 4.1.8 Singapore
      • 4.1.9 Bangladesh
      • 4.1.10 Philippines
    • 4.2 Europe
      • 4.2.1 Åland islands
      • 4.2.2 Austria
      • 4.2.3 Croatia
      • 4.2.4 Czech Republic
        • Legal status
        • Usage
        • Local restrictions
      • 4.2.5 Denmark
      • 4.2.6 Finland
      • 4.2.7 France
      • 4.2.8 Germany
      • 4.2.9 Ireland
      • 4.2.10 Italy
      • 4.2.11 Lithuania
      • 4.2.12 Luxembourg
      • 4.2.13 Malta
      • 4.2.14 Netherlands
      • 4.2.15 Norway
      • 4.2.16 Poland
      • 4.2.17 Portugal
      • 4.2.18 Sweden
      • 4.2.19 Switzerland
      • 4.2.20 United Kingdom
    • 4.3 North and South America
      • 4.3.1 Canada
      • 4.3.2 United States
      • 4.3.3 Brazil
      • 4.3.4 Mexico
      • 4.3.5 Dominican Republic
    • 4.4 Oceania
      • 4.4.1 Australia
      • 4.4.2 New Zealand
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Early history and pre-release marketing

The Segway PT was known by the names Ginger and IT before it was unveiled. Ginger came out of the first product that used Kamen's balancing technology, the iBOT wheelchair. During development at the University of Plymouth, in conjunction with BAE Systems and Sumitomo Precision Products, the iBot was nicknamed Fred Upstairs (after Fred Astaire[2]) because it can climb stairs: hence the name Ginger, after Astaire's regular film partner, Ginger Rogers, for a successor product.[3]

The invention, development, and financing of the Segway was the subject of a narrative nonfiction book, Code Name Ginger (in paperback as Reinventing the Wheel), by journalist Steve Kemper. The leak of information from that book led to speculation about the "IT" device prior to release. The speculation created an unexpected advance buzz about the product that was, at times, hyperbolic. Steve Jobs was quoted as saying that it was "as big a deal as the PC",[4] though later sources quoted him as saying when first introduced to the product that its design "sucked".[5] John Doerr speculated that it would be more important than the Internet.[4] Articles were written in major publications speculating on it being a Stirling engine.[6] South Park devoted an episode to making fun of the hype before the product was released.

A patent for the Segway was submitted in June 1999 and granted in October 2001 (US PTO #6302230).[7] The product was unveiled 3 December 2001, in Bryant Park in New York City on the ABC News morning program Good Morning America.[8] It was first sold to the public in 2002. The second generation Segway product line was introduced in 2006.[9]

In 2010, British entrepreneur Jimi Heselden bought Segway Inc., but soon afterwards Heselden died after falling from a cliff while riding a Segway PT.[10] In 2015, Segway was acquired by Ninebot Inc., a Beijing-based transportation robotics startup.[11]

In 2014, Segway introduced its third generation models, i2 SE and x2 SE, which use its LeanSteer frame and powerbase designs, and have integrated lighting.[12]


Car insurance in nigeria The Segway PT's detachable wireless InfoKey

The dynamics of the Segway PT are similar to a classic control problem, the inverted pendulum. The Segway PT has electric motors powered by Valence Technology phosphate-based lithium-ion batteries, which can be charged from household current. It balances with the help of dual computers that run proprietary software, two tilt sensors, and five gyroscopic sensors developed by BAE Systems' Advanced Technology Centre.[13] The servo drive motors rotate the wheels forwards or backwards as needed for balance or propulsion. The rider controls forward and backward movement by leaning the Segway relative to the combined center of mass of the rider and Segway, by holding the control bar closer to or farther from their body. The Segway detects the change in the balance point, and adjusts the speed at which it is balancing the rider accordingly. On older models, steering is controlled by a twist grip on the left handlebar, which simply varies the speeds between the two motors, rotating the Segway PT (a decrease in the speed of the left wheel would turn the Segway PT to the left). Newer models enable the use of tilting the handle bar to steer.[14]


Car insurance calculator malaysia 2015Play media Segway demonstration video Renters insurance geico coverage for rental car Two tourists on a Segway tour in Florence, Italy

Segways perform best in areas with adequate sidewalks, curb cuts at intersections, and ramps. They are used in some theme parks by visitors and employees. Angel Island State Park, in San Francisco Bay in California, offers Segway tours, but prohibits personal Segways except as needed by disabled visitors.[15] The special police forces trained to protect the public during the 2008 Summer Olympics used the Segway for mobility.[16]

Though a Segway-focused organization, Disability Rights Advocates for Technology,[17] advocates for Segway PT sidewalk and facility access as an ADA issue, Segways cannot be marketed in the US as medical devices: they have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a medical device and Johnson & Johnson claims exclusive rights to the medical uses of the balancing technology found in the iBOT and Segway.[citation needed] Dean Kamen sold the medical rights to the technology of the iBOT, a very stable and mobile powered wheelchair, to Johnson & Johnson.[18]

A version of the Segway i2 is being marketed to the emergency medical services community. Equipped with light bars and a variety of hard and soft cases, it is sealed against wet conditions, and rated for 24 miles (39 kilometres) per charge.[19]

Use and regulation by country



On Amwaj Islands, a group of artificial man-made islands off the coast of Muharraq, Segways are available for short term hire.


Police have begun using Segways to patrol certain public areas, such as Tian'anmen square. Police also use them in Beijing International Airport.[20]

Hong Kong

Hong Kong International Airport use many battery powered motorized vehicles in the airport terminal indoor area. Security contractors use the Segway PT to patrol indoor restricted areas of the airport terminal. Cleaning contractors use powered tricycles to patrol. Luggage trolley contractors use two wheeled powered tractors to assist their pulling of about 30 trolleys tied together forming a trolley train.[citation needed]


The Segway was introduced in 2010 and has sold around 250 units as of 2014. They are introduced at Ambience complexes in south Delhi and Gurgaon, the Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi, at many golf courses and to promote tourism at places like Kankaria Lake, Ahmedabad. They are used for recreational purposes at New Town Eco Park in Kolkata. It is also seen in at a shopping mall at Siliguri in Indian state West Bengal to be used by the mall's own security personnel or occasionally by the visitors for recreation purpose only. Their growth is limited due to cost, high customs and a lack of infrastructure.[21]


In 2006, the Segway was approved for use on sidewalks and other pedestrian designated locations, and on roads without sidewalks, with obstructed sidewalks or sidewalks that lack curb cuts. The user must be over 16 years old. No license is required. The maximum allowed speed is 13.5 km/h (8.4 mph), enforced by electronic restriction put in place by the importer.[22] Companies offering tours of Jerusalem use the second generation i2 model.[23] In 2009 the Jerusalem Biblical Zoo was the first in the world to offer Segway guided tours in the zoo.[24]


On Penang island and in Malacca, Segways are available for short term hire.


In a court, Segway was classified as a motorcycle, owing to the power output;[25] however, there is no report of registration. Segway Japan, an authorized dealer, sells Segways only to corporations to use in facilities.[26]


Segways were introduced to Changi Airport, initially for workers who collect baggage carts but are widely utilised by customer service and security employees. Sentosa island has a Segway rental allowing use around the island or in a small circuit.


As part of a modernization drive initiated by the government, the Bangladeshi Police have started to patrol the roads with Segway Electric Vehicles. Dhaka Metropolitan Police (DMP) has already received the first batch of Segways and has showed off in Pahela Baishakh while providing security in Ramna. DMP's modernization drive includes acquisition of indigenous drones, Mobile Command Center, portable sniping zone and now, Segway electric vehicles.


Iloilo City's tourist destination, the riverside Iloilo Esplanade is patrolled by Philippine National Police with segways. Iloilo City Government financed the segways.


Insurance adjusters are concerned about the high estimates for car Segway in Germany. They are equipped with a red light and a license plate.

Segways are used in Europe, but mainly in niche markets (such as guided city tours); they are not commonly used as a means of transportation. Their use on public streets is allowed in most countries, but often with restrictions. A few countries require vehicle insurance and a license plate.

Åland islands

A law revision by the Government of Åland concerning "small electrically powered vehicles" means the Segway and all other mainly one person electrical vehicles have been classified as bicycles since March 14, 2012.


The type i2 is (width 63 cm) narrower than 80 cm and slow enough to be legally an (electric) bicycle and therefore has to use cycle-lanes and -paths, otherwise street lanes. The type x2 reaches with its bigger wheels 84 cm width and is therefore an electric vehicle, that needs a license and insurance. Neither type may use sidewalks (lengthwise) or pedestrian zones (unless exemption stated). By 2015 one gets Segways for rent at least in Vienna (in the Prater amusement park and elsewhere), in Graz (since July 2013), Linz and Fiss.[27] At least 2 Segways with one blue flashing light are used by police in Vienna (April 2015).[citation needed]


Use of a Segway is allowed within city limits wherever pedestrian and bicycles are allowed, i.e., sidewalks, bicycle paths, parks, etc. Segways can be rented for city tours in cities of Zagreb, Split and Dubrovnik.

Czech Republic

Legal status New car deals insurance Before 2016, the Ministry of Transport of the Czech Republic enforced the interpretation that Segway PTs fall under pedestrian status. This road sign forbids Segways but allows "normal" pedestrians on the path (the prohibition affects "Segway devices only" as a sort of pedestrians).

Until February 2016, legal status of Segway was controversial and unclear. At least since the autumn of 2010, the Ministry of Transport enforced the interpretation that a rider on the Segway is considered as a pedestrian (with possible reference to the legal definition of a pedestrian which mentions "persons on skis, rollerskates or other similar sport equipment" and with an uttered rationale that the device is quite ineligible to fulfil requirements for vehicles). The central Prague district Praha 1 and the city of Prague, supported by some of transport experts including academician Petr Moos, strongly opposed this interpretation. The ministry was preparing a legal change which would mention PT Segway and skateboards explicitly in the definition of a pedestrian (which should cover also unicycles and roller shoes implicitly). The city of Prague proposed to bring PT transporter to the act as a quite new and special category of road traffic vehicles/participants.

The amendment act 48/2016 Sb., in force since 20 February 2016, defines a new strange term "osobní technický prostředek" (= personal technical device/medium) for "personal transporter with selfbalancing device" and "other similar devices". However, the text of the act uses a term "osobní přepravník" ("personal transporter") in that sense instead. The factual regulation is similar to users of skis and rollerskates, i.e. they fall under rules for pedestrians and in addition they can use cyclist lanes and cyclist paths. Compared to rollerskates, PTs have their speed limited to "speed of walking" at walkways. Municipality can restrict their traffic by municipal decree, but such a restriction needs to be marked by road signs. Since 21 March 2016, a new ordinance of the Ministry of Transport, 84/2016 Sb., which introduced several new road signs, is in force:[28]

Usage Car insurance cancellation template letterhead Map of PT prohibition in the center of Prague since 2 August 2016

Segways are used by municipal police corps in several cities as Prague, Plzeň, Olomouc, Karlovy Vary, Znojmo and Slaný. Since 2014, ambulance Segway is used by the private rescue service Trans Hospital.

Owners and operators of rental Segway transporters are associated in the "Asociace Segway ČR" which had 9 members in August 2014, all their rental shops are in the centre of Prague. In October 2012, this association prescribed rules for its members which contain a list of prohibited hazardous frequented localities.[29] Some other operators are not associated and don't respect the rules. Metro daily newspaper in a May 2015 article presented an estimate that there are ca 300 Segways in Prague streets.[30] However, since November 2016, Segways are prohibited in the broader centre of Prague.

Local restrictions Rental car accident no insurance No segway zone sign near the Prague Castle

Massive usage of Segways as well as restrictions are still limited to the area of the broader centre of Prague.

On 15 September 2014 Praha 1 placed to the Kampa park the first Czech road signs which prohibits entrance of Segways. The sign consisted from the sign "No entrance for pedestrians" with an additional text sign "JEN ZAŘÍZENÍ SEGWAY" (only Segway devices). These signs were criticized by media and by the Ministry of Transport as confusing and incomprehensible.

Praha 1 prohibited for Segways also the passage of Richter House between Michalská street and Little Square at the Old Town, in 2015 or earlier. Unofficial marking on the floor was used for this prohibition.[31]

In July 2015, Praha 2 prohibited Segways in the area of Vyšehrad Fortress. A round sign with the text "SEGWAY" inside was used.[31][32]

Since 15 August 2015, the director general of the National Library prohibited Segway riding in the area of Clementinum in Prague Old Town, however Segways were allowed to led from the side.[33] Similarly, Segways were prohibited in the area of the Tyrš House at Malá Strana, the main building of the Czech organization of Sokol.

On the grounds of new legal definitions and authorization, on 19 July 2016, the Prague Council approved a decree (in force since 3 August 2016) that Segways (strictly speaking all "personal transporters" as defined by law) are forbidden in the whole Prague Conservation Area (Old Town, New Town, Hradčany, Malá Strana, Josefov, Vyšehrad) as well as in a broad center of the city: the whole district of Prague 7 (Holešovice and part of Bubeneč including Stromovka Park), big part of Prague 4 (Nusle, Podolí, Braník, Krč, Michle), Karlín, parts of Žižkov and Vinohrady etc.[34][35] However, the restriction became efficient after the prohibition road signs are installed. According to the marking project by TSK (the Prague road management organization), 610 zone signs were installed at 250 places, at the expenses of 4 millions CZK. Implementation of the marking should begin past the official comment procedure, in the second half of November 2016.[36] However, the official information campaign "Segway No Way" started in August already.[37] On 24 November 2016, the Magistrate gave its decision about the signage and the first such sign was installed on 25 November 2016, the remaining in the next two weeks.[38]


The Segway is classified as a moped (knallert). As such vehicles must be fitted with lights, license plates and mechanical brakes, the Segway is effectively banned from public roads.[39] A trial where the Segway would be classified as a bicycle has been announced running from June 1, 2010 to April 1, 2011. The trial was extended to December 1, 2011, and later to the end of 2014.[40]


Segways are classified as low-power mopeds and therefore require license plates, effectively banning the use on public roads. On March 31, 2015, The Ministry of Transport and Communications of Finland started progress to propose changes to law to allow Segways under 25 km/h on sidewalks and reclassifying them as bicycles. Like bicycles, Segways would be required to include safety reflectors and a bell to alert pedestrians and the driver is required to wear a bicycle helmet.[41]


Segways, also named "gyropode", are equivalent to pedestrians and obey the same rules and laws. Tours of Paris, Nice, Marseille, Bordeaux, Montpellier, Strasbourg and many others are offered on a daily basis.


Use of a Segway PT i2 is generally allowed on bicycle paths and public roads within city limits since July 25, 2009.[42] Outside city limits, the Segway may not be used on federal motorways, federal highways, state roads, and district roads. Bicycle lanes must be used if present. Riding a Segway on sidewalks and in pedestrian zones for city tours requires a special permit. The Segway is classified as an "electronic mobility aid", a new class of vehicle defined specifically for the Segway PT. Segways used on public roads must be equipped with front and rear lighting, reflectors, a bell, and an insurance plate. The driver must have procured a vehicle insurance and hold at least an M type (moped) license.


Segways are permitted in most public places. A Segway tour of the Phoenix Park is available. They are permitted in certain areas on bicycle paths around Dublin and Cork. The Airport Police Service stationed at Dublin Airport use the Segway i2 police patroller model. In 2011, a private tour operator started a City of Dublin Segway Tour. In October 2012 the Garda Síochána began using two examples in the Grafton Street area, funded by the Dublin Business Community.


Use of a Segway is allowed within city limits wherever pedestrians or bicycles are allowed, i.e., sidewalks, bicycle paths, parks, etc.[43]

Ontario car insurance regulations Lithuanian policeman on segway in Vilnius


Policemen in Vilnius, Kaunas and Palanga use segways to patrol. Also segways are available to rent for tourists in Vilnius.


Segways are legal on bicycle trails and roads. They are the equivalent to electrical bikes and obey the same rules and laws. Tours of Luxembourg city, Remich, Rumelange and Schengen are offered on a daily basis.


Policemen have started testing Segways on patrol in Valletta. Informed sources said the Malta Police are considering the purchase of a number of Segways fitted for police work, including a siren and space for radio and other equipment.[44]


In April 2008, the Dutch Government announced that it would ease the ban it had imposed in January 2007 that made it illegal to use a Segway on public roads in the Netherlands.[45] Until recently[when?], a tolerance policy was in place due to the inability of the authorities to classify the Segway as a vehicle.[46] However, certain handicapped people, primarily heart and lung patients, are allowed to use the Segway, but only on the pavement. From 1 July 2008, anyone over the age of 16 is permitted to use a Segway on Dutch roads but users need to buy custom insurance.[47] Amsterdam police officers are testing the Segway. In Rotterdam the Segway is used regularly by police officers and city watches.


Because of the top speed of 20 km/h, the Segway was classified as a moped in Norway. Prior to 2014, there were requirements for registration, insurance, age limit, drivers licenses and helmets to operate a Segway in the country. Therefore, Segways were not originally able to be used legally on public or private roads or on private property in Norway.[48][49] Segways became legal in Norway on July 1, 2014 on all public roads with speed limits 60 km/h or less, sidewalks and bicycle lanes for ages 16 and older without requiring registration or insurance.[50]


Has been on hire in some towns and cities such as Warsaw, Kraków and Krynica for use on public roads and pavements.


Segways are legal on public paths from age 18 (and below, when accompanied by adults) as an equivalent to pedestrian traffic[51] and are used by local police forces,[52] and by Polícia Marítima (a Navy unit), for beach patrolling. They are also used (rented) by tour operators across the country, and by shopping security guards.

Instant car insurance quotes online uk pharmacy A Segway PT tour in Stockholm led by a guide.


It was unlawful to use a Segway on any public road or pavement in Sweden[53] until 18 December 2008 when the Segway was re-classified as a cykel klass II (class 2 bicycle).[54] Segways are popular in Stockholm where tours are led through the streets by Segway guides with modified PTs and courses are set out at sites such as the Royal Haga park. On 1 October 2010 the Segway and similar one person electrical vehicles were re-classified as bicycles.


The Segway is classified as a light motorcycle.[55] Only the PT i2 has been approved for use in Switzerland. The PT i2 may be used on roads provided that it is equipped with a Swiss Road Kit and a license plate. The Swiss Road Kit has front and back lighting, a battery source, and a license plate holder. Use on sidewalks and pedestrian zones is prohibited. An exception is made for handicapped individuals, who must obtain in advance a special authorization from the Swiss Federal Roads Office. The Segway PT i180 may also be registered for use on specific request. However, the PT i180 must be equipped with a left/right turn indicator system before it may be admitted for road use.[citation needed]

United Kingdom

Distributed in the UK by Segway-UK, the Segway is classified as a powered vehicle and subject to Road Traffic law — with the effect that, because the Segway is deemed not to meet required safety standards, it is unlawful to use a Segway anywhere other than on private property with the owner's permission.[56] While in opposition in 2008, the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats lobbied the Labour Government to change the law to allow Segways to use public cycle lanes.[57] In July 2010, a man was charged under the Highway Act 1835 in Barnsley for riding his Segway on the pavement, and was prosecuted and fined £75 in January 2011.[58][59][60] His conviction was upheld by the High Court on appeal.[61]

North and South America


Restrictions on motorized vehicle use are set by provinces individually. In Alberta, Segways cannot legally be driven on public roads including sidewalks abutting public roads. Segways cannot legally be driven on city-owned bicycle paths in Calgary.[citation needed] Segways are allowed on private land with the landowner's permission. In British Columbia, Segways cannot legally be operated on B.C. roads or on sidewalks because they cannot be licensed or insured as a vehicle in B.C.[62] In Ontario, the Ministry of Transportation started a pilot program allowing Segways to be used by people 14 years or older with a disability, Canada Post door-to-door delivery personnel, and police officers. It was originally planned to end on October 19, 2011, but was extended by two years, and then extended again an additional five years (to October 19, 2018), due to limited participation. Prior to the end of the pilot program, the Ministry of Transportation will assess the data and information gathered from the pilot decide whether to allow Segways and how to legislate them.[63]

Rental car company insurance requirements Guided Segway tour Washington, D.C. Buying short term car insurancePlay media Video of Segways in motion at
Colonial Williamsburg (25 seconds)

United States

The company has challenged bans and sought exemption from sidewalk restrictions in over 30 states. The Segway PT has been banned from use on sidewalks and in public transportation in a few municipalities, often because it is not classified as a device used for medical purposes. Advocacy groups for pedestrians and the blind in the US have been critical of Segway PT use: America Walks[64] and the American Council of the Blind oppose allowing people, even those with disabilities, to drive the Segway PT on sidewalks and have actively lobbied against any such legislation.[65] Today, Segways are allowed on sidewalks in most states, though local municipalities may forbid them. Many states also allow them on bicycle lanes or on roads with speed limits of up to 25 mph.[66]

In 2011, the U.S. government Department of Justice—amending regulations that implement title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)—ruled that the Segway is an "other power-driven mobility device" and its use must be permitted unless the covered entity can demonstrate that users cannot operate the class of devices in accordance with legitimate safety requirements.[67]

A fact sheet published by the US Justice Department states: "People with mobility, circulatory, respiratory, or neurological disabilities use many kinds of devices for mobility. Some use walkers, canes, crutches, or braces. Some use manual or power wheelchairs or electric scooters. In addition, advances in technology have given rise to new devices, such as Segways®, that some people with disabilities use as mobility devices, including many veterans injured while serving in the military. And more advanced devices will inevitably be invented, providing more mobility options for people with disabilities." It clearly gives those with mobility issues, whether certified with a disability or if the user just " states verbally that the OPDMD is being used because of a mobility disability." It further states that "the person using the device to provide credible assurance that the device is used because of a disability. If the person presents a valid, State-issued disability parking placard or card or a State-issued proof of disability, that must be accepted as credible assurance on its face. If the person does not have this documentation, but states verbally that the OPDMD is being used because of a mobility disability, that also must be accepted as credible assurance, unless the person is observed doing something that contradicts the assurance." Entitled users are required to be able to use Segways freely and should not be denied usage no less that a cane or crutches would be allowed to be taken away. There is some allowance in only some very specific circumstances where usage would be considered unsafe. Source: www.ada.gov/opdmd.htm

It would seem that the overreaction of the FAA and almost all airlines and some municipalities such as New York City and it's transit system to ban ALL "hoverboards" would be in conflict with federal ADA rules. see: www.theverge.com/2016/1/27/10842342/nyc-hoverboard-ban-mta-subways-buses and www.iata.org/whatwedo/cargo/dgr/Documents/small-lithium-battery-powered-vehicles.pdf

Semi-ambulatory Americans have previously benefitied from Segway use, even in New York City. Source: nytimes.com/2004/10/14/technology/circuits/disabled-embrace-segway.html

Latest models of Segways have been approved by UL Labs for fire safety. As of March 2016, Underwriters Laboratories has a testing procedure for hoverboards, UL 2272, At least some Segways have already been approved, including the Segway MiniPro. See: ULStandards.ul.com/standard/?id=2272 Unfortunately, defective batteries in hoverboards sold in 2015 have now raised the barrier to usage and some legal challenges may be required going forward.

Segs4Vets is a nonprofit organization that provide Segway PTs to the men and women of the United States military whose service in Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom resulted in permanent disability and difficulty walking.[68]

San Francisco

In November 2002, before it was widely available, the city of San Francisco banned the Segway PT from sidewalks citing safety concerns.[69] However, a number of Segway Tour operations use them in cycle lanes and designated trails.

Washington, D.C.

In September 2010, Dr. Mary Pat McKay, a professor of emergency medicine and public health at George Washington University, issued a statement that injuries from the transporters were becoming both more common and more serious. McKay's case review in the Annals of Emergency Medicine noted 41 Segway injuries between April 2005 and November 2008 among GWU emergency room patients.[70] The District of Columbia categorizes Segways as a "personal mobility device" which means Segway users follow D.C.'s bicycle laws, which do not require Segway users to wear helmets and other protective gear. Users are not allowed to wear headphones with the exception of hearing aids or other devices that only require the use of one ear.[71][72] Accidents have continued to occur in the District of Columbia, including a June 2012 incident involving a Dallas, Texas high school student who lost control of his Segway after fainting during a commercially operated Segway tour. Pursuant to the District's Code, Segways are prohibited on sidewalks within the Central Business District—bounded by 23rd Street NW to the west, Massachusetts Avenue to the north, Second Street NE to the east, and D Street to the south—unless operated by a person with a disability.[73]


In February 2004, Disney banned Segway PTs from its theme parks, stating they had not been approved by the FDA as medical devices.[74] In the same month,[75] Disney began offering Segway tours of its Epcot theme park.[76] In early August 2007, Disney began offering a similar guided tour in its Disney California Adventure Park park in California.[77]


In Brazil Segway PTs are being used by security in shopping malls.


In Mexico there is no regulation that limits Segway use in public spaces.[78]

Dominican Republic

The devices are used on group ecotours in the area south of Punta Cana.



In Australia laws are determined at the state & territory level, each differing in their adoption of the Australian Road Rules. It is generally illegal to use the two-wheeled electric transporters in public places and on roads throughout Australia.

In the Australian Capital Territory, use of Segways is illegal on roads and other public places, but, as of June 2012[update], was permitted around Canberra's Lake Burley Griffin and other tourist attractions, subject to training, safety equipment and speed limit requirements.[79][80]

In New South Wales, the Segway has been confirmed by the Roads and Traffic Authority as being illegal on both roads and footpaths. "In simple terms, riders are way too exposed to mix with general traffic on a road and too fast, heavy and consequently dangerous to other users on footpaths or cycle paths."[81] Although this does not render them totally illegal (they may still, for example, be used on private property), their uses are limited enough that they are not sold to the general public.

In Queensland, the use of the Segway became legal on the 1st of August 2013. Queensland transport Minister Scott Emerson noted that it makes sense for Segways to be allowed on public paths across Queensland, given users wear helmets.

In Western Australia, the law enables Electric Personal Transporters (EPT) (Segways) to be used as part of a supervised commercial tour, being run by an operator that holds the appropriate approvals. You may use an EPT on private property. Tour operators should approach the Local Authority where they wish to operate the tour. Local authorities have ultimate responsibility for approving tour operators within their respective areas.[82][83]

New Zealand

In New Zealand the Segway PT is classed as a mobility device, in the same category as a mobility scooter or electric wheelchair. Mobility Devices must be ridden on footpaths where possible, at a speed that does not endanger others, and give way to pedestrians.[84] This ruling might not be consistently applied: in 2011, police in Taupo in New Zealand's the North Island had to stop using Segways because there is no separate vehicle classification that applies to them, requiring their registration as roadworthy in the same manner as cars.[85]

See also

  • Electronics portal
  • Bay Area SEG, The Bay Area Segway Enthusiasts Group that founded Segway polo
  • Honda U3-X, a self-balancing one-wheeled electric vehicle by Honda
  • Segway Fest, an annual convention of Segway PT users and enthusiasts
  • Toyota Winglet, a self-balancing two-wheeled scooter by Toyota
  • Trikke Pon-e, a three-wheeled hybrid personal transporter
  • Dicycle
  • Self-balancing two-wheeled board, a type of device similar to the Segway PT, but lacks handlebars


  1. ^ "i2 SE Personal Transporter". Retrieved May 24, 2016. 
  2. ^ Kemper, Steve (2003). Code name Ginger : the story behind segway and Dean Kamen's quest to invent a new world. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press. p. 27. ISBN 9781578516735. Retrieved 23 June 2016. One day, goofing around, the rotated them in opposite directions, which made the machine dip and jig in a crazy rumba that led someone to remark that it danced like Fred Astaire. "No," said Dean. "Fred Upstairs." They began calling the project Fred. 
  3. ^ Kemper, Steve (2003). Code name Ginger : the story behind segway and Dean Kamen's quest to invent a new world. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press. p. 30. ISBN 9781578516735. Retrieved 23 June 2016. When you leaned forward, it moved ahead. The more you leaned, the faster it went. To stop, you leaned slightly back. It was just like walking, but more fun. The team was too busy with Fred to give it much attention. For a while it was little more than a diversion. It was lighter and slighter than Fred Upstairs. They named it Ginger. 
  4. ^ a b "Reinventing the Wheel". TIME. 2 December 2001. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  5. ^ "Steve Jobs and Jeff Bezos meet "Ginger"," Steve Kemper, Harvard Business School Working Knowledge, 16 June 2003
  6. ^ Michelle Delio (9 March 1945). "'Ginger': Kamen's Stirling Idea". Wired.com. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  7. ^ "United States Patent 6,302,230". United States Patent Office. Retrieved January 4, 2016
  8. ^ Machrone, Bill (3 December 2001). "Ginger Unveiled-It's a Scooter!". Extremetech.com. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  9. ^ "Our Story So Far", Segway, Inc., accessed May 24, 2016
  10. ^ Brooke, Chris (28 September 2010). "Millionaire Segway tycoon dies in cliff plunge on one of his own scooters". Mail Online. London. Retrieved 4 October 2010. ; and "Segway tycoon fell from a cliff to his death on one of his own scooters as he 'let dog walker pass". London: Associated Newspapers Ltd. 15 July 2011. 
  11. ^ "Segway Bought by Xiaomi-Backed China Transporter Startup Ninebot". Bloomberg Business. April 14, 2015. ; Shih, Gerry (April 15, 2015). "Xiaomi-backed Chinese firm acquires iconic scooter maker Segway". Reuters. ; and Shu, Catherine. "Beijing-based Ninebot Acquires Segway, Raises $80M From Xiaomi And Sequoia", 'TechCrunch', 15 April 2015
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  14. ^ "Segway, Official Site". Segway.com. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 6 November 2011. 
  15. ^ "Angel Island SP". Retrieved 2 August 2008. 
  16. ^ "Wheel scary: Chinese anti-terror police practise killing drills on scooters | Mail Online". Mailonsunday.co.uk. 2 July 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  17. ^ "Disability Rights Advocates for Technology". Retrieved 6 August 2008. 
  18. ^ Higginbotham, Adam (27 October 2008). "Dean Kamen: part man, part machine". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 26 September 2009. 
  19. ^ "EMS LifeLine". StreetSmart Segway. Retrieved 6 November 2011. 
  20. ^ China's military tries Segways http://news.cnet.com/8301-17912_3-9983589-72.html
  21. ^ Brown, Stephen (2 September 2014). "Segway's India business pegs hope on tech-savvy Modi". Reuters. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  22. ^ "Transportation regulations". rsa.gov.il. Retrieved 4 July 2011. 
  23. ^ "Jerusalem Segway Tours". zu-zu.co.il. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  24. ^ "Jerusalem Zoo Segway Tours". zu-zu.co.il. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  25. ^ 石田真一. 『セグウェイ』は整備不良...50万円の罰金命令 (in Japanese). Response.jp. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  26. ^ Will Segway sci-fi ever be everyday fact? | The Japan Times Online 15 November 2009
  27. ^ Info per phone from SEGWAY-Center-Graz. 16 April 2015.
  28. ^ An amendment proposal for the ordinance no. 294/2015 Sb., ODok, Government of the Czech Republic, 14th January 2016
  29. ^ "Asociace Segway ČR - sdružení provozovatelů Segway tours". asociace-segway.cz. 
  30. ^ Robert Oppelt: Segwaye jsou horší než hazard a nevěstince, říká starosta Prahy 1, Metro.cz, 14 May 2015
  31. ^ a b Zákaz vjezdu vozítek segway upravují v Praze dvě dopravní značky, České noviny, 8. 12. 2015, ČTK, [1], Pražský deník, 8. 12. 2015
  32. ^ Na Vyšehrad nesmí vozítka segway. Praha 2 jim to zakázala, iDnes.cz, 28. 7. 2015, ČTK, Metro.cz
  33. ^ Zákaz vjezdu tzv. samobalančních dvoukolek "segway" do areálu Klementina, Ministerstvo kultury ČR, 15. 8. 2014
  34. ^ Nařízení č. 14/2016 Sb. hl. m. Prahy, kterým se vymezují místa, kde je provozování osobního přepravníku na chodníku, stezce pro chodce, stezce pro chodce a cyklisty, na odděleném pruhu pro chodce na stezce pro chodce a cyklisty, na pěších a obytných zónách a na vozovce zakázáno, Counsil of Prague, 19 July 2016, map
  35. ^ Dave Park: Prague Segway Ban Takes Effect from August : And it’s stricter than anticipated: Segways will not only be forbidden to ride on sidewalks, but also roads, throughout many Prague districts, Expats.cz, 18 July 2016
  36. ^ Robert Oppelt: Segway no way. Velký plán metropole se konečně naplní, Metro, 14. 11. 2016, str. 2
  37. ^ Praha nechala vyvěsit plakáty upozorňující na zákaz segwayů, Deník.cz, 8. 8. 2016, ČTK
  38. ^ Michaela Bůnová: První značka už zakazuje segway, pokutovat ale strážníci zatím nemohou, iDnes.cz, 25. 11. 2016
  39. ^ "Færdselsstyrelse: En Segway er en knallert" (in Danish). Danmarks Radio. 24 August 2007. Retrieved 23 October 2007. 
  40. ^ "Forlængelse af forsøg med elektrisk drevne en-akslede køretøjer". Færdselstyrelsen. 23 December 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2012. 
  41. ^ "Muutosta aletaan valmistella: Kevyet sähkökulkuneuvot laillisiksi liikennekäytössä" (in Finnish). Liikenne- ja viestintäministeriö. 2015-03-31. Retrieved 2015-04-11. 
  42. ^ "Bundesgesetzblatt: Verordnung über die Teilnahme elektronischer Mobilitätshilfen am Verkehr" (PDF) (in German). 24 June 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2010. 
  43. ^ "Normativa Vigente" (in Italian). 
  44. ^ "Valletta Police on the beat, using Segways". Times Of Malta. 11 August 2011. 
  45. ^ Stevenson, Reed (18 April 2008). "Dutch to ease ban on self-balancing Segway scooter | Technology". Reuters. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  46. ^ "RTL Nieuws.nl - Segway voor gehandicapten toegestaan". Rtl.nl. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  47. ^ "Self-balancing Scooters Banned on Dutch roads;Segways remain legal". DailyHover.com. Retrieved 11 April 2016. 
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  49. ^ http://www.tnp.no/norway/politics/4008-boxing-and-segways-to-be-legal-in-norway
  50. ^ Frank Ertesvåg. "Segway blir lov fra 1. juli". VG. 
  51. ^ "'Segways' são legais e voltam às ruas de Lisboa [Portugal]" (in Portuguese). 
  52. ^ "Polícia Municipal de Coimbra acquire Segway PT i2 - Segway" (in Portuguese). [dead link]
  53. ^ "Segway | Support | Lagar & regler". Segway.se. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  54. ^ "Segway klassad som cykel" (in Swedish). DN.se. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  55. ^ "Le Segway PT i2 est homologué en Suisse!" (PDF) (in French). Segway. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009. 
  56. ^ "Department for Transport - Regulations for Self-balancing Scooters". Dft.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  57. ^ "Politics | MPs want Segways allowed on roads". BBC News. 22 April 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  58. ^ "Judgement in R v Phillip Coates at Barnsley Magistrates' Court" (PDF). Judiciary.gov.uk. 18 January 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011. 
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  60. ^ "Segway Motor Scooter Commuter Loses Legal Challenge". BBC News. 18 January 2011. 
  61. ^ "Coates v Crown Prosecution Service (2011) EWHC 2032 (Admin)". British and Irish Legal Information Institute. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
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  65. ^ "The American Council of the Blind's official position". The Segway may well have a good use and place in our environment, but it is clear [...] that insufficient attention is being paid to pedestrian safety and injuries and deaths are not the price we should be paying for innovation 
  66. ^ "Segway Laws". Ghsa.org. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  67. ^ "FACT SHEET: Highlights of the Final Rule to Amend the Department of Justice's Regulation Implementing Title II of the ADA". United States Department of Justice. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
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  71. ^ "How are segways regulated in D.C.?". Washington City Paper. 26 April 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013. 
  72. ^ http://www.dc.gov/DC/DDOT/On+Your+Street/Bicycles+and+Pedestrians/View+All/ci.Bicycle+Laws.print
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  74. ^ "Anger at Disney over Segway ban". MSNBC. 9 February 2004. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  75. ^ "Walt Disney World Park Update (Walt Disney World Park Update) by Mark Goldhaber". Mouseplanet.com. 16 February 2004. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  76. ^ "Around the World at Epcot". Disneyworld.disney.go.com. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  77. ^ "Disneyland&reg - Upgrade Your Browser". Disneyland.disney.go.com. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  78. ^ "FAQ". Segway Mexico. 
  79. ^ "Canberra Segway ban lifted". June 12, 2012. 
  80. ^ "A Review of Segway Use and Commercialisation in the Australian Capital Territory" (Feb 2012). Retrieved 13 December 2012. 
  81. ^ "Segway test: ride a mock horse". Sydney Morning Herald. 3 January 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2009. 
  82. ^ "Changes to allow limited use of segways". Minister for Transport, Western Australia. 14 April 2013. 
  83. ^ "Electric Personal Transporters (EPT) (Segways)". Department of Transport, Western Australia. 18 April 2013. 
  84. ^ Segway NZ "Segway - Support - Regulatory Information". Retrieved 28 October 2010
  85. ^ AFP (20 January 2011). "Police Segways fall foul of NZ law". ABC News. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 

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Alien Insurance Company: An insurance company incorporated under the laws of a foreign country.

Amendment: A change to the basic policy contract. An amendment alters the policy; an endorsement (see definition below) adds to it.

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Auto Theft: The theft of an auto is a type of loss that is covered under comprehensive coverage.

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Basic Auto Policy: Although still used today to insure substandard risks, two-wheel motorized vehicles, and commercial autos, the Basic Auto Policy has been primarily replaced by the Personal Auto Policy, which combines both physical damage coverage and liability insurance for claims arising out of the ownership or use of a vehicle.

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Blue Book: A publication used for the determination of values for used automobiles and trucks. The full name of the publication is Kelley Blue Book.

Bodily Injury: An injury sustained by a person.

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Cancellation: Termination of an insurance contract before the end of the policy period, by the insured or insurer.

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Claim Adjuster: A person responsible for investigating and settling a claim.

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Clause: A section in an insurance policy that explains, defines or clarifies the conditions of coverage.

CLUE® Report: Comprehensive Loss Underwriting Exchange (CLUE) report; provides claim history information.

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Competitive Auto Repair Parts: Parts made by a company other than the manufacturer of the auto. Parts meet or exceed the quality of the manufacturer's parts, but cost less. Most insurance carriers guarantee these parts for as long as you own the car.

Competitive Estimate: A term used when an insurance company requests that you submit multiple repair estimates for consideration.

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Condo Insurance: A type of homeowner's insurance that meets the special needs of condominium owners.

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Customized Vehicle: A vehicle that has been altered or has equipment or accessories not typically found in a personal vehicle.

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Defensive Driver Course: These are classes either offered through or approved by Departments of Motor Vehicles to enhance driving skills. These courses may make drivers eligible for discounts on their premiums. Courses taken for traffic school because of a moving violation are not eligible.

Defensive Driver Discount: Certain drivers (usually over age 50) who have voluntarily taken a defensive driving course may qualify for this discount on their auto insurance premiums.

Depreciation: The decrease in value of any property due to wear, tear, and/or time. Generally, depreciation is not an insurable loss.

Discount: A reduction in your premium if you or your car meets certain conditions that are likely to reduce the insurer's losses or expenses. For example, auto insurance discounts are given for cars with auto theft devices and for drivers and passengers who use seat belts.

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Drive-In Claims Office - Concierge Claims Service: An office or location that allows drivers to have simple, one-stop access for claims coverage.

Drive-Other-Car Endorsement: Optional coverage that broadens the definition of a covered auto to include non-owned vehicles the insured person operates.

Driver Education: State accredited educational course that consist of at least 30 hours of professional classroom instruction.

Driver Improvement Course: A voluntary refresher course available for drivers age fifty-five (55) and older to enhance their driving skills.

Driver Training: State accredited training course that consists of time spent behind-the-wheel with professional instruction.

Driver Training Discount: A discount for people who have taken an approved driver training course. This discount is not available in all states or for all individuals.

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E-Commerce/Electronic Commerce: The sale of products such as insurance over the Internet

Earned Premiums: The portion of premium that applies to the expired part of the policy period. Insurance premiums are payable in advance but the insurance company does not fully earn them until the policy period expires.

Economic Loss: Total financial loss resulting from the death or disability of a wage earner, or from the destruction of property. Includes the loss of earnings, medical expenses, funeral expenses, the cost of restoring or replacing property and legal expenses. It does not include noneconomic losses, such as pain caused by an injury.

Effective Date: The date that coverage begins on an insurance policy.

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT): EFT is an electronic payment method that lets you pay your premiums with automatic deductions from your checking account.

Emergency Road Service Coverage: Protection for problems that are not typically handled but your auto insurance, such as: being locked out of your car, towing not related to an accident, having a dead battery re-charged, inflating a flat tire, filling an empty gas tank. (Also referred to as Towing and Labor)

Endorsement: A document, which is attached to the policy and modifies or changes the original policy in some way.

Estimate: As assessment of the cost to repair your damaged property.

Exclusion: Section of the insurance policy, which list property, perils, person, or situations which are not covered under the policy.

Experience: Can refer to many items such as driving record history or record of losses.

Experience Rating: Determination of the premium rate for an individual risk, made partially or wholly on the basis of that risk's own past claim experience.

Expiration Date: The date your coverage ends. There is usually a time of day associated with this date, for example, an expiration date of 5/1/2002 at 12:01am. This means your coverage ends one minute after midnight on the date listed.

Exposure: Possibility of loss. Insurance companies set rates based upon exposure.

Extended Non-Owner Liability: An endorsement that provides broader liability coverage for specifically named people operating any non-owned automobile or trailer. It covers non-owned autos, use of autos to carry people or property for a fee, and individuals driving employer-furnished cars who do not own vehicles themselves.

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Family Automobile Policy: Now replaced by the Personal Auto Policy, the Family Auto Policy was a package policy in which both liability and physical damage protection to an insured's vehicle was offered on one policy.

Field Adjuster: An insurance adjuster who works primarily outside of an office and often meets personally with the public. Field adjusters can conduct face-to-face meetings, negotiations with claimants, scene investigations, and damage inspections.

Financed Car: A vehicle financed by a loan. The lender retains a lien on the auto until it has been paid off.

Financial Ratings: Financial ratings reflect a rating organization's opinion on the financial strength and ability to meet ongoing obligations to policyholders. The ratings organizations most commonly identified with the insurance industry are AM Best, Standard & Poor's and Moody's.

Financial Responsibility Law: Financial responsibility laws require owners and operators of autos to maintain enough money to compensate those they injure. Liability insurance is the most common way to satisfy these requirements.

First Party: Term used to refer to an insured.

First Party Benefits: This pays policyholders and others covered by the policy in the event of injury, no matter who caused the accident. The benefits can include medical expenses, loss of income, funeral and death benefits. This may also be called Personal Injury Protection.

First Party Claims: A claim for damage, loss or injury made by an insured.

Flat Rate Cancellation: Termination of an insurance contract at inception. This policy is never in effect.

Forced Placed Insurance: Insurance purchased by a bank or creditor on an uninsured debtor's behalf to cover the property, so that the creditor receives payment if the property is damaged or destroyed.

Foreign Insurance Company: An insurer domiciled in another state.

Forms: This can be any part of your insurance policy. This may be an SR-22 form or a policy form like your application, declaration page or policy jacket. Typically, all are available in Adobe's PDF format.

Fraud: A false statement intended to deceive the insurer and induce it to part with something of value or surrender a legal right. May void a policy.

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Gap Insurance: If you are making lease or loan payments and you experience a total loss, there may be a difference (gap) between the market value of your vehicle and what you still owe on it. This optional coverage pays the difference.

Garage Location: The zip code where your vehicle is parked when not in use and usually corresponds to your primary residence.

Good Student Discount: May be awarded to full-time students who maintain a grade average of "B" or better. Each carrier has specific rules that may apply.

Guarantee Funds: All 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico require licensed insurers to assume some of an insolvent insurance company's policyholder liabilities. These funds are used to bail out the policyholders of companies that fail.

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Hazard: Anything that increases the chance of an accident occurring.

Hit and Run: An accident caused by someone who does not stop to assist or provide information.

Homeowners Insurance: Protects homeowner's from losses to their homes, personal property, and some types of damage or injury to others for which the homeowner is liable. Homeowner's insurance is subject to the terms, limits and conditions of your policy contract.

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ID Card: A card issued by your insurer containing basic information about your insurance policy. Some states require you to keep an ID card in your vehicle.

Inception Date: The date that coverage begins on an insurance policy.

Indemnification: The act of providing compensation for a loss with the intent to restore an individual or entity to the approximate financial position prior to the loss.

Indemnity: A principle of insurance which provides that when a loss occurs, the insured should be restored to the approximate financial condition occupied before the loss occurred, no better, no worse.

Independent Adjuster: An individual who estimates losses on behalf of an insurance company, but is not an employee of that company.

Inspection: Verification of a vehicle's physical condition.

Insurable Interest: Exists when an individual would suffer an economic loss as the result of damage to property or bodily injury.

Insurance: Insurance is a system in which groups of people who have similar chances of suffering a loss transfer their risk of loss to an insurer who pools the risk of many people together. In exchange for payment of premium, the insurer promises to reimburse the person for their covered losses.

Insurance Fraud: The act of falsifying or exaggerating the facts of an accident to an insurance company to obtain payment that would not otherwise be made. Common types of insurance fraud are staged accidents, exaggerated injuries, and inflated medical bills.

Insurance Score: Confidential ratings used for underwriting in some states as a rating tool. It may include information about the consumer's payment history, the number of open accounts and if bankruptcy has been filed. It is a measure of how financial affairs are managed and does not include assets, income information or race information.

Insured: A person or organization covered by an insurance policy.

Insurer: An organization that provides insurance.

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Joint Underwriting Association/JUA: Insurers which join together to provide coverage for a particular type of risk or size of exposure, when there are difficulties in obtaining coverage in the regular market, and which share in the profits and losses associated with the program. JUAs may be set up to provide auto and homeowners insurance and various commercial coverages, such as medical malpractice

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Lapse in Coverage: A point in time when a policy has been canceled or terminated for failure to pay the premium, or when the policy contract is void for other reasons.

Leased Vehicle: A vehicle rented under a long-term contract (lease). The leasing company retains ownership of the vehicle and must be shown on your insurance policy as an insured. See also: gap insurance.

Legal Liability: Liability imposed by law, as opposed to liability arising from an agreement or contract.

Lender: Your lender is the institution to which you make car payments.

Lessor: Your lessor is the institution to which you make your lease payments.

Liability: Any legally enforceable obligation or responsibility for the injury or damage suffered by another person.

Liability Adjuster: The liability adjuster handles the investigation of the accident. These adjusters' responsibilities can include collision payments, property damage payments, and bodily injury settlements. In some states, these adjusters may also handle the medical portion of your claim.

Liability Insurance: Insurance providing money on behalf of the policyholder to pay because of bodily injury or property damage caused to another person and covered in the policy.

Liability Investigation: The process of gathering information to determine the cause of an accident.

Lien: A claim, charge, or encumbrance on property as a security for the payment of a debt.

Lien holder: A person or organization with a financial interest in property up to the amount of money borrowed or still owed on the property.

Limit: The maximum amount of protection purchased by the insured for a specific coverage.

Limits of Liability: The maximum amount of insurance the insurance company will pay for a particular loss, or for a loss during a period of time.

Line of insurance: The type or kind of insurance such as personal lines, life insurance or homeowners

Loss: Any measurable dollar cost of damage and/or injury suffered by a person.

Loss of Use: Compensation to a third-party claimant for financial consequences resulting from the inability to use property as the result of accident-related damage.

Loss Payee: A person or entity with a legally secured insurable interest in another's property, usually a financial institution that loaned money to buy a car. The car is the loan collateral. If the auto is damaged in an accident, loss payments will be made to you and to the loss payee on your policy.

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Malicious Mischief: Intentional damage of personal property with malice of forethought.

Material Damage: All property-related damage losses covered by the policy. This includes the following: Property Damage (PD), Comprehensive damage (COMP), Collision damage (COLL), Fire/Theft Combined Additional Coverage (FTCA), Rental Reimbursement (RREUN), or Uninsured Motorist Property Damage (UMPD).

Material Misrepresentation: The policyholder / applicant makes a false statement of any material (important) fact on his/her application. For instance, the policyholder provides false information regarding the location where the vehicle is garaged or fails to disclose all the residents in a household.

Mechanical Breakdown Insurance: Covers repairs to all mechanical parts of the car.

Medical Adjuster : The medical adjuster is responsible for reviewing all medical bills, replacement/essential services, and lost wages submitted to the company for injuries sustained by you and/or the passengers in your vehicle (depending upon the state in which you live and the coverage on your policy).

Medical Payments Coverage: Pays medical expenses related to an automobile accident. This coverage is subject to the terms, limits and conditions of your policy contract.

Minimum Limits of Liability: The least amount of liability coverage that can be purchased, which is generally equivalent to the minimum amount required by state law. In determining rates, a carrier will use the basic limits to develop the base rates. If an insured person wants higher limits, the carrier applies an increased limits factor to the base rate in calculating the new premium for the increased coverage.

Misrepresentation: To make written or verbal statements that is untrue or misleading.

Motor Vehicle Record (MVR): A report from the agency that issues your driver's license, listing accidents and violations that appear on your driving record. This report is used to verify information provided by insurance applicants and policyholders.

Motorcycle Safety Foundation (MSF): An international non-profit organization dedicated to motorcycle safety training, research and awareness. Some applicants who complete MSF courses qualify for discounts for motorcycle insurance.

Multi-car discount: A discount offered by some insurance companies for those with more than one vehicle insured on the same policy. In some cases, if you drive a company car insured by your company, your own insurance company may give you the multi-car discount.

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Named driver exclusion: Endorsement on your auto policy that excludes a particular driver who has access to your car from coverage.

Named Insured: Any person, firm or corporation designated by name as the insured person(s) in a policy. Others may be protected by policy definition even though their names aren't on the policy, such as other drivers operating (with consent) the named insured's covered auto.

Named Non-Owner Policy: A policy endorsement for one who operates any non-owned automobile on a regular basis, such as driving a car provided by one's employer.

National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB): A not-for-profit organization that partners with insurers and law enforcement agencies to facilitate the identification, detection, and prosecution of insurance criminals. The NICB receives support from over 1,000 property/casualty insurance companies.

Negligence: The failure to exercise the care that is expected of a reasonable person in similar circumstances.

No-Fault Insurance: May pay for your medical treatment, lost wages, or other accident-related expenses regardless of who caused the accident. This coverage is subject to the terms, limits and conditions of your policy contract and is not available in all states.

No-Loss Form: A statement that is a signed form telling the insurance company there have not been any losses since a certain date. The document usually includes a cancellation date, expiration date, and reinstatement date. etc.

Non-Owned Auto: Any vehicle that is not owned, borrowed, or leased by the insured, and which is used primarily for a business purpose.

Non-Owner Car Insurance: A policy providing liability coverage to a driver who does not own a vehicle, used to avoid gaps in continuous coverage, provide rental-car liability or to satisfy state requirements to reinstate a driver's license or SR-22 filing.

Non-Renewal: When an insurer decides not to renew a policy at the end of its policy period.

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Occasional Driver: The person who is not the primary or principal driver of the vehicle.

Occurrence: An event, or repeated exposure to conditions, which unexpectedly causes injury or damage during the policy period.

Original Equipment Manufacturer Parts: Auto parts obtained from the original manufacturer of the car or the supplier of the original part.

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Passive Restraint System: A passenger safety system, such as an air-bag, that activates automatically in the event of an accident.

Payment Plans: Your auto insurance premium can be paid using one of our installment payment plans; you make several smaller payments but incur a service fee.

Payment Recovery: If your car is damaged because of another driver's negligence and you ask your insurance carrier to settle the claim for damage to your vehicle, we will seek to recover your deductible and our payments from the other party. This process of payment recovery is also called subrogation.

Per Occurrence Limit: This refers to the cap amount an insurance company will pay for all claims arising from a single incident. In an automobile accident, it comprises bodily injuries sustained by all parties. When Bodily Injury coverage is purchased in split limits, the second limit is the "per occurrence" limit: e.g. $100,000(per person)/$300,000(per occurrence)

Per Person Limit: This refers to the cap amount an insurance company will pay for any one person's injuries arising from a single incident. In an automobile accident, it comprises bodily injuries sustained by each person. When Bodily Injury is purchased in split limits, the first limit is the "per person" limit: e.g. $100,000(per person)/$300,000(per occurrence)

Peril: A danger or hazard that can cause a loss, for example, a car collision with an object, or a fire.

Personal Auto Policy: The most common auto insurance policy sold today. Often referred to as "PAP," this policy is written in simple wording and provides coverage for liability, medical payments, uninsured/underinsured motorist coverage, and physical damage protection.

Personal Injury Protection: May pay for your medical treatment, lost wages, or other accident-related expenses regardless of who caused the accident. This coverage is subject to the terms, limits and conditions of your policy contract

Personal Property: Property that is not land or connected to land (real estate), such as furniture or jewelry.

Physical Damage: Damage to your covered vehicle from perils including (but not limited to) collision or upset with another vehicle object, fire, vandalism and theft.

Physical Damage Coverage: Pays for damage to your car this could be through Collision Coverage or Comprehensive Coverage (Also referred to as Other Than Collision)

Policy: The written documents of a contract for insurance between the insurance company and the insured. Such documents include forms, endorsements, riders and attachments.

Policy Change: Any change made to your insurance policy during the period that the policy is in force.

Policy Lapse: A point in time when a policy has been canceled or terminated for failure to pay the premium, or when the policy contract is void for other reasons.

Policy Limit: The maximum amount a policy will pay, either overall or under a particular coverage.

Policy Period: The period of time in which a policy is in effect. (For example, six months or one year).

Policy Term: The length of time that the policy is in force. Most companies offer annual and semi-annual policies.

Policyholder: One who maintains ownership in an insurance policy. This may refer to the policy owner or those covered under the policy. See also Named Insured.

Pre-accident Condition: The state of the vehicle before the accident, including damage not related to the accident, mileage, options, and other factors.

Preferred Risk: Any risk considered to be better than the standard risk on which the premium rate was calculated.

Premium: The price of insurance an insured person pays for a specified risk for a specified period of time.

Premium Financing: When a policyholder contracts with a lender to pay the insurance premium on his/her behalf. The policyholder agrees to repay the lender for the cost of the premium, plus interest and fees.

Primary Insurance: Insurance that must be maintained as a condition of the most Personal Umbrella Policies. Primary insurance acts as the first layer of coverage on common types of losses. This usually includes auto, motorcycle and homeowner insurance, but may also include boat insurance, commercial liability or some other policy. Please check your insurance policy documents for more detailed information.

Primary Use: What your vehicle is mainly used for (pleasure, to and from work, business, commercial, or farm).

Principal Driver: The person who drives the car most often.

Private Passenger Automobile: A four-wheeled motor vehicle that is subject to motor vehicle registration and used for private personal use.

Private Passenger Autos: Ordinary cars, station wagons and jeeps, utility autos (pick-ups, panel trucks and delivery vans of 1,500 lbs. or less, not used commercially) and utility trailers designed to be pulled by a private passenger auto.

Pro Rata Cancellation: Termination of an insurance contract before the policy expiration date on which the premium returned to the insured person is adjusted in proportion to the amount of time the policy was in effect.

Proof of Loss: A statement made regarding the extent of the claim; it may be requested in accordance with the conditions of the policy.

Property Damage Liability Coverage: Pays for damage to someone else's property resulting from an accident for which you are at fault and provides you with a legal defense. This coverage is subject to the terms, limits and conditions of your policy contract.

Proximate Cause: An act or omission initiating an unbroken sequence of events resulting in injury to a person or damage to property.

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Quote: A statement of the premium that will be charged for insurance coverages based on specific information provided by the person requesting the quote including drivers, vehicles, and driving record.

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Rate: Often used as a synonym for premium but actually refers to the base rating units that are used to determine the final premium.

Rating Plan: The rules that determine the cost of your insurance premium. These rules modify the base rates by applying discounts and surcharges based on your personal characteristics, for example, using your seat belt,

Rebate: A reduction of a premium.

Red Book: A publication used for the determination of values for used automobiles and trucks.

Reinspection: A review of an estimate or appraisal done by an adjuster during or after repairs to a vehicle. This is done to guarantee the accuracy of staff or independent auto damage personnel, and to guarantee that the work required in an estimate or appraisal is being completed by the body shop.

Reinstatement: The restoring of a cancelled policy to full force and effect. The reinstatement may be effective after the cancellation date, creating a lapse of coverage. Some companies require evidence of insurability and payment of past due premiums plus interest. They may also require a signed no-loss form.

Reinsurance: A form of insurance that insurance companies buy for their own protection, used and required to pay for losses and claims.

Release: Legally binding contract stating that all obligations past, present or future arising from a particular accident or occurrence have been fulfilled.

Renewal: The process of keeping an active policy in force through the issuance of a renewal policy.

Renewal Date: The date that your insurance policy expires and the date that your renewed policy will begin.

Rental Reimbursement: Optional coverage that helps pay rental vehicle costs when your insured vehicle is disabled as the result of a covered accident or loss. Available to most policyholders for an additional premium.

Renter's Insurance: Insurance that provides protection from losses that arise out of the rental of a home. Protection covers losses to the insured's property, not to losses that occur as a result of owning a home.

Replacement Cost: The cost to repair or replace an insured item. Some insurance only pays the actual cash or market value of the item at the time of the loss, not what it would cost to fix or replace it. This will pay the full cost to repair an item or buy a new one to replace the damaged item.

Replacement Parts: Several types of parts may be used when your vehicle is repaired: new parts, both original equipment manufacturer and after-market; and recycled parts. New or after-market parts will be used if a carrier can't find like-kind and quality recycled parts. A 5-year-old car, for instance, would be repaired with parts at least as good as the parts that had been in the car.

Replacement Value: The full cost to repair or replace the damaged property with no deduction for depreciation, subject to policy limits and contract provisions.

Resident Adjuster: Staff adjuster who handles claims in remote areas of a region.

Rider: In motorcycle insurance, a rider is someone who will operate the insured motorcycle. In life and health insurance, the term "rider" is often used to refer to an endorsement to an insurance policy.

Risk: The chance of suffering a loss.

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Safe Driver Plan: A rating system that assigns points for traffic convictions and certain accidents. Similar to a merit-rating plan, each point increases the surcharge percentage to the baseline rates.

Salvage Title: A title of ownership on a car that was once deemed a total loss by an insurance company, but has since been repaired and allowed back on the roadways.

Select Repair Shop: Body shops chosen by your insurance carrier that are authorized to handle the repair of insured vehicles without the need for an inspection by an assigned adjuster. Vehicle owners should always have the right to choose the body shop of their choice.

Self-Insured Retention: In umbrella insurance, self-insured retention is similar to a deductible in other types of insurance. The self-insured retention is the amount of damages for which the policyholder is responsible before the umbrella coverage begins to cover a loss.

Short Rate Cancellation: A policy termination in which the refunded premium is not proportional to the amount of time remaining in the policy period due to the fixed expenses incurred by the company. The insured will generally pay more for each day of coverage than if the policy had remained in force throughout the entire policy period.

Special Investigation Units: Your insurance carrier helps fight fraud through its special investigation unit, staffed with experts in fraud detection and investigation. Sounds official.

Split Limit: Any insurance coverage with separately stated limits for different types of coverage. Example: an automobile liability policy of 100/300/50 provides a maximum of $100,000 bodily injury coverage per person, $300,000 bodily injury coverage per accident, and a property damage limit of $50,000 per accident.

SR-22: An SR-22 (CFR) is a certificate mandated by the state to verify that an individual is maintaining auto insurance liability coverage. If a person needs an SR-22 (CFR), they will usually be notified by their state's Motor Vehicle Department.

Stacking of Limits: The application of more than one policy limit to the same loss or occurrence. In some jurisdictions, courts have required stacking of limits when multiple policies, or multiple policy periods, cover an occurrence. For example, Uninsured motorist bodily injury limits of $100,000/300,000 on two policies owned by the same person may be added together to pay a loss. In this event, the total amount of coverage available for an accident would be $200,000/600,000.

Staff Adjuster: A non-contract or per-job adjuster that is typically employed by your insurance carrier to handle claims.

Subrogation: If your car is damaged because of another driver's negligence and you ask your insurance carrier to settle the claim for damage to your car, we will seek payment recovery (including your deductible) from the other party. This process of payment recovery is called subrogation.

Supplement/Supplemental Estimate: Used to cover damage not included in the original estimate. Most claims settlements do their best to estimate costs, if they are wrong you are entitled to any additional money to settle your claim. This is paid with a supplement.

Surcharge: An extra charge applied by the insurer. For automobile insurance, a surcharge is usually charged for items like accidents, moving violations, or specific risks not handled by normal rating factors.

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Term: The length of time for which a policy or bond is in force.

Theft: The unlawful taking of another's property with the intent to permanently deprive the owner of its use or possession.

Third Party: Person or entity not party to an agreement but with an interest in the agreement.

Third Party Claim: Claims for injury or damage to property of a third party alleged to have been caused by the insured.

Threshold Level: Under some no-fault insurance laws, the threshold level represents the degree of injury a claimant must establish before being allowed to sue the negligent party. The threshold may be verbal (regarding the severity of the injuries) or a dollar amount ($10,000), or both. For example, with a threshold of $5,000, an injured person may sue if his/her injuries and other economic damages (rehabilitation expenses, loss of income, etc.) exceed $5,000.

Tort: A private wrong or harm (other than a breach of contract) committed against another, resulting in legal liability. A tort is either intentional or accidental (negligent). Automobile liability insurance is purchased to protect one from suits arising from unintentional torts.

Tort Feasor: One who commits a tort (see the definition of tort).

Total Loss: The condition of an automobile or other property when damage is so extensive that repair costs would exceed the value of the vehicle or property.

Towing and Labor Costs: This endorsement, which is added to the physical damage coverage, provides reimbursement up to a specified limit to tow your vehicle or pay for on-site labor costs.

Transportation Expenses: Subject to a daily and maximum dollar limit, this coverage (under the physical damage portion of an automobile policy) pays for transportation expenses incurred by the named insured only in the event of theft of an entire covered auto. Coverage generally begins after a stated minimum waiting period.

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Umbrella Insurance: Provides high limits of additional liability coverage above the limits of your homeowner's and auto policy. In addition, it provides coverage that may be excluded by other liability policies.

Underinsured: The result of the policyholder’s failure to buy sufficient insurance. An underinsured policyholder may only receive part of the cost of replacing or repairing damaged items covered in the policy.

Underwriting: The process an insurer goes through to determine whether or not it will provide coverage for an applicant.

Unearned Premium: The portion of your premium remaining on your policy term. For example, with a six-month premium, at the end of the first month of the premium period, five-sixths of the premium is unearned by the insurance company.

Uninsured Motorist Coverage: A type of car insurance coverage that protects you if you're hit by a driver without insurance. If you don't have uninsured motorist, and you're hit by an uninsured driver, you may need to pay out of pocket for damages to your car.

Unsatisfied Judgment Fund: Some states have established laws to reimburse those injured in auto accidents that have been unable to collect from the responsible party.

Usage: This refers to the primary function or purpose in which you intend to operate your vehicle. For example, if you primarily drive your car to and from work, the usage is considered "commute; "if you're self-employed and you primarily drive to see customers, the usage is considered "business;" if you're retired, your usage is considered "pleasure."

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Vandalism: Destruction or defacement of property.

Vehicle Identification Number (VIN): A 17-digit number assigned to each vehicle manufactured in the United States after 1980. This number is used for identification purposes and is visible on the dashboard when viewed from the outside of the car. It indicates many identifiers including make, model, options, and year in official records (like a Social Security number for your car).

Void: A policy contract that for some reason specified in the policy becomes free of all legal effect. One example under which a policy could be voided is when information a policyholder provided is proven untrue.

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Waiver of Collision Deductible: This option pays your collision deductible when you carry collision coverage on a vehicle that is damaged by an uninsured or hit-and-run motorist who is at fault. Coverage applies only when there is actual physical contact and when you can identify the uninsured driver or vehicle.

Whole Dollar Premium: Generally, insurance premiums are rounded to the nearest dollar; an amount of 51 cents or more being rounded up to the next dollar, and any amount less than that the cents are dropped.


Public transport is becoming more accessible. Here we look at what to expect from newer trains, coaches, buses and taxis and ferries, planes and trams and light railways. We tell you where to find accessible services for blind and partially sighted travellers, Deaf and people who are hard of hearing plus information about travelling in your wheelchair or mobility scooter.



  1. Introduction (this page)
  2. Blind or partially sighted travellers
  3. Buses3.1 Scooters on buses
  4. Community transport
  5. Coaches
  6. Taxis
  7. Trains
  8. Trams & light railways
  9. Planes
  10. Ferries
  11. Transport in London
  12. Safety for wheelchair users
  13. Your legal rights
Rica has print guides available by post (UK only). Acknowledgements: This guidance was researched and produced by Rica with funding from Motability.


To make your journey go as smoothly as possible it's best to plan and prepare. We look at:

  • access
  • journey planning
  • concessions
  • assistance
  • announcements and communication
  • accessible toilets
  • loop systems
  • parking
  • how to report back or complain.

There are travel tips and advice from experienced travellers, as well.

For each mode of public transport, we look at specific issues under the following headings. On this page, we cover how these apply in general. 

Before reading the guides on specific transport types, you may find it useful to see how your legal rights apply. There is additional information on issues of relevance for blind and partially sighted travellers and safety for wheelchair users. 

Journey planning

These are some resources that can help you plan your journey. You can also find information on planning journeys in London and for specific types of transport using the links in the sidebar.

Google Maps has a directions feature that can plan journeys using public transport. You can select which transport types you prefer and specify routes with less walking or fewer transfers.

Google Maps Email:  Website: 


Further details >

Traveline (England, Scotland and Wales) provides timetables for local and national journeys on buses, coaches and trains, and has details on access.

Traveline Tel: 

0871 200 22 33

Email:  Website: 


Further details >

Translink (Northern Ireland) has an online journey planner for train, bus and metro services.

Translink (Journey Planner) Email:  Website: 


Further details >

People with learning disabilities

Mencap has easy-read factsheets on accessible transport, covering topics such as bus concessions, Taxicard and Dial-a-Ride.

For people in Northern Ireland, the publication 'Travel Safe - A guide to being out and about for people with learning disabilities' covers all manner of situations involving public transport.


Contact the relevant transport operator to find out what help their staff can provide. You usually have to give at least 24 hours notice. It's best to phone to check every part of your journey. For trains, there's Passenger Assist, which is a centralised planning and booking service.


Many transport operators offer concessions for disabled and older people to travel. Contact the relevant transport provider. All local authorities are obliged by law to offer concessionary bus travel to older passengers.


The Equality Act 2010 means that transport operators have to provide good access, accessible toilets and well-lit, clearly signed stations with tactile markers (for example, at platform edges).


The National Key Scheme (formerly the RADAR Key Scheme) provides people in the UK with access to over 9,000 locked accessible public toilets. The scheme is operated by the national charity Disability Rights UK, which sells keys for £4.50 and provides a map of the location of the toilets. An app for smartphone users is also available. To buy a key, contact Disability Rights UK or ask your local authority.

Disability Rights UK Disability Rights UK Ground Floor CAN Mezzanine 49-51 East Rd London N1 6AH

United Kingdom


020 7250 8181


[email protected]



Further details >

Changing Places is a coalition of organisations (including Mencap) that campaigns for toilets that have extra room and more facilities than standard accessible toilets:

Changing Places (England, Wales, NI) Changing Places (England, Wales, NI)

United Kingdom


020 7696 6019


[email protected]



Further details > Changing Places (Scotland) Changing Places (Scotland)

United Kingdom


01382 385 154


[email protected]



Further details >

Route information

Clear and audible announcements on public transport are becoming more common, including information on delays or changes to travel routes. Transport companies are obliged to communicate with all passengers equally, including disabled passengers.

Reporting back and complaining

It's important to complain about poor service, so that things improve.

As well as getting in touch with customer services departments by phone or email, you can use your smartphone to complain on the spot via social media (eg Facebook, Twitter).

England, Scotland and Wales

Always contact the local transport provider first. If you're not satisfied with their response, then take the steps recommended in the relevant sections for each transportation type.

Northern Ireland

First contact Translink with complaints about their train, metro or bus services. If you're not satisfied with their response, contact the Consumer Council for Northern Ireland.

Translink Translink

United Kingdom


028 9066 6630


[email protected]



Further details > Consumer Council for Northern Ireland Consumer Council for Northern Ireland Floor 3 Seatem House 28-32 Alfred Street Belfast BT2 8EN

United Kingdom


0800 121 6022


028 9025 1663


[email protected]



Further details >

Travel tips and advice

  • Plan your trip - check websites, phone your transport provider, talk to other people.
  • Ask the transport operator if they offer assistance or travel training.
  • Some transport companies can give you a 'Safe Journey' card, which has details of your needs written on it. You can show it to the driver or staff to privately ask for help. For an example, see www.firstgroup.com/safejourney.
  • If you're not feeling confident, take a friend or relative with you.
  • Book assistance with the transport operator in advance - most need 24 hours notice.
  • Plan for each step of the journey - think about food, drink and any medication needed.
  • Check that there'll be accessible toilets and facilities.
  • For where to find blue-badge holders parking spaces at bus stations, ferry terminals and airports, visit:
PIE Parking for Blue Badges Email:  Website: 


Further details >
  • Make sure your mobile phone is charged before you set out. Take emergency contact details, the phone number of the transport provider and other contacts.
You can also download this as a complete guide: Public transport (PDF). Or you can receive printed publications by post (UK only).

Last updated: August 2015

Introduction | Next: Blind or partially sighted travellers


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