Car insured but not on mid november
- Uganda Autos Guide
- Uganda Road Safety and Regulations
- Uganda Driving Tips before you start your car
- Uganda Driving Tips while your Car is moving
- Buying a Car in Uganda
- Common Automotives you will find in Uganda
- Getting your Car Insured in Uganda
- Hiring a car, Tractor,Bus or Machinery in Uganda
- Routine Automobile Servicing, Repairs, and finding the right Autospare parts for your car in Uganda
- How to Fuel your car when in Uganda
- Financing the purchase of your car
- Uganda Auto Industry Business opportunities
- Related Topics
- Uganda Autos news updates, Auto reviews, Car Deals Buying and Selling, and Answers to Automobile Industry Questions
- Public policies
- Coverage levels
- Basis of premium charges
- Repair insurance
- See also
- External links
- International terminology
- How it works
- Handicapped accessibility
- See also
- Notes and references
- External links
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Uganda Autos Guide
Africa Driving Tips and Automotive Industry TrendsLoading
The Uganda Autos guide is your ultimate business travel tool for navigating the Uganda Automotive Industry.
As a new driver on the African roads, we guide you on important road safety rules and driving tips in Uganda, what to consider when buying or hiring a car in Uganda, where to get Automotive insurance, how to finance your car purchase, business opportunities and useful Automotive industry updates.
While some travelers have described driving in Uganda as a series of near misses, if you really love doing your business flexibly when in Uganda, you must brave the road by your self.
As a foreign business traveler, you're likely to encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those back home, especially if you came from developed economies like the United States.
In Uganda you will drive on the left hand side of the road and your general speed limit on national highways should not exceed 100km/h and 65 km/h in urban built up areas, unless otherwise indicated.
What you will find in this Uganda Autos Guide:
Uganda Road Safety precautions and Regulations
Uganda Driving Tips before you start your car
Uganda Driving Tips while your Car is moving
Buying a Car in Uganda
Common Automotives you will find in Uganda
Getting your Car Insured in Uganda
Hiring a car, Tractor,Bus or Machinery in Uganda
Routine Automobile Servicing and Repairs in Uganda
The Best way to Fuel your car when in Uganda
Financing your Automotive Purchase with a Car Loan
Uganda Autos Industry Business opportunities
Uganda Autos news updates, Auto reviews, and Frequently asked questions about Automotives in Uganda
Free Uploads for Cars and Machinery for Sale
Uganda Road Safety and Regulations
First and foremost, you need to be aware of the governing Law lest you're taken unawares by a traffic policeman,and yet your ingnorance of the law is not a defense in Uganda Court rooms; Road safety in Uganda is Governed by the THE TRAFFIC AND ROAD SAFETY ACT of 1970, This is Act which consolidates the law relating to road traffic.
In Uganda, you drive on the left hand side of the road. The general speed limit on national highways is 100km/h and 65 km/h in urban built up areas, unless otherwise indicated.
Make sure you have your local or international driving permit before you drive a car in Uganda. Click here to find out how to get a driving permit in Uganda.
You need to be cautious while driving on Uganda roads and be ware of the following:
Most inter-city transportation in Uganda is by small van or large bus. Many drivers of these vehicles have little training and some are reckless. Small vans and large buses are often poorly maintained, travel at high speeds, and are the principal vehicles involved in the many deadly single and multi-vehicle accidents along Ugandan roads.
Accident victims have included foreign nationals traveling in small vans and personal cars, passengers on motorcycle taxis locally known as "boda bodas" and pedestrians. Large trucks on the highways are often overloaded, with inadequately secured cargo and poor braking systems.
Alcohol frequently is a contributing factor in road accidents, particularly at night. Drivers are advised to take extra care when driving. Nighttime driving and road transportation should be avoided whenever possible.
Pedestrians often walk in the roads and may not be visible to motorists. Large branches or rocks in the road sometimes indicate an upcoming obstruction or other hazard. Highway travel at night is particularly dangerous, including the road between Entebbe Airport and Kampala.
Traffic accidents draw crowds. Ugandan law requires that the drivers stop and exchange information and assist any injured persons.
In some cases where serious injury has occurred, there is the possibility of mob anger. In these instances, Ugandans often do not get out of their cars, but drive to the nearest police station to report the accident, be sure to do the same.
Click here to ask any question about Uganda Road Safety and Regulations
Uganda Driving Tips before you start your car
Before driving a car in Uganda , do a simple safety check.
Turn on the lights and walk around the vehicle to ensure that all lights are in working order.
Check your blinkers for proper operation.
Look for any fluid leaks or things hanging from the vehicle.
Check that the tires are properly inflated.
When you get into the car, adjust all mirrors and seats before placing the key in the ignition. To properly adjust the left mirror place your head against the left window and adjust the mirror so that you can just see the left side of the car. For the right, move your head towards the center of the vehicle and adjust the right mirror in the same way. When you are sitting correctly in the driver's seat, you will not be able to see your vehicle, but your blind spots will be greatly reduced.
Always wear your seatbelts, having no seat belt is a traffic offence!
Click here to ask any question about driving in Uganda
Uganda Driving Tips while your Car is moving
Always drive with your headlights on, a car is visible for nearly 4 times the distance with it's headlights on even during daytime hours.
When stopping at a stop sign, be sure to feel the car rock backward and spell S-T-O-P to yourself before proceeding.
Always turn your head to look left, then right, straight ahead, then left again before proceeding.
At Traffic Lights in Uganda: when a light turns green, look left, then right, straight ahead, then left again before proceeding through the light. Notice all vehicles and ensure that someone else is not going to run the light.
Keep your eyes moving. Notice what is happening on the sides of the road and check behind you through your mirrors every 6-8 seconds.
When driving on a two lane road that allows parking on the right, stay toward the center line to allow for room if someone were to open their door to exit their vehicle in front of your car. This forethought will help you from swerving to miss an opening door. If there is no parking allowed on the road position your car toward the right to allow for more room between you and oncoming traffic.
Expect the other drivers to make mistakes and think what you would do if a mistake does happen. For example, do not assume that a vehicle coming to a stop sign is going to stop. Be ready to react if it does not stop. Never cause an accident on purpose, even if a pedestrian or another vehicle fails to give you the right-of-way.
A rear-facing baby seat MUST NOT be fitted into a seat protected by an active frontal airbag, as in a crash it can cause serious injury or death to the child.
Do not drive when you're tired as as you will greatly increase your risk of collision. To minimise this risk make sure you are fit to drive. Do not begin a journey if you are tired. Get a good night’s sleep before embarking on a long journey Avoid undertaking long journeys between midnight and 6 am, when natural alertness is at a minimum Plan your journey to take sufficient breaks. A minimum break of at least 15 minutes after every two hours of driving is recommended If you feel at all sleepy, stop in a safe place. Do not stop on the hard shoulder of a motorway The most effective ways to counter sleepiness are to drink, for example, two cups of caffeinated coffee and to take a short nap (at least 15 minutes).
Your Vision; You MUST be able to read a vehicle number plate, in good daylight, from a distance of 20 metres (or 20.5 metres where the old style number plate is used). If you need to wear glasses (or contact lenses) to do this, you MUST wear them at all times while driving in Uganda. The Uganda Traffic police have the power to require you as a driver to undertake an eyesight test.
Click here to ask any question about driving in Uganda
Buying a Car in Uganda
Buying cars for your business will is one of the most important asset acquisation decision you will have to make when in Uganda.
We have listed some of the factors you will have to consider when buying your cars in Uganda:
- Cost of the car verses your budget : Make sure the car you want suites your budget
- Whether you want a USED or New : Used cars are much cheaper in Uganda
- Model - A newer model means less servicing costs and better chances of resellability but a really steep upfront cost
- Milage - Be sure the milage is low.
- Automatic or Manual : Automatic cars require less skill to drive and are the commonest in Uganda
- Wheel or 4 Wheel : 4 wheel drive vehicles are the most suitable for Uganda roads
- Petro or Diesel : Most trucks and 4 Wheel drive cars use diesel but the majority of cars in Uganda are town service cars and consume Petro
- Availability of Spare parts: You need to buy a car whose parts will not need to be imported when the car gets small problem.
- Costs of Servicing: Used cars and rare cars normally have the highest costs of servicings.
- Resellerability : Will your car still be marketable in Uganda after you have used it 2 years and want to sell it for a better model?
If you're buying a car in Uganda, we do advise that you go with a trusted Mechanic to inspect your new car before you fianlly pay for it.
After buying your car you will need to get a car log book with the particulars of the owner and the vehicle particlars, including the vehicle registration number which is given by the Uganda Revenew Authority. Your car dealer should process for you all the necessary car registrations and pay the necessary URA fees as part of the vehicle purchase fees.
If you have imported the car from abroad by yourself, then you need to do the registration on your own. You will also have to do your own car registration if you purchase a used car from a friend. Your car seller must sign a tranfer form for the car to enable you change the registration of the of the ownership vehicle in your names.
Below is the list of Major Automotive dealers in Uganda:
- Chatha Motos
- Toyota Uganda
- Moto Care Uganda
- Spear Motos Uganda
- CMC Motors Group Ltd
- Nissan Uganda
- AISHA GROUP Uganda LTD
- Yuasa Investments Uganda
- Smart Motor World Ltd.
- Jambo Auto Mart Ltd.
- Future Group Co. Ltd.
- Planet Solutions Uganda Ltd
- Dura Motors Ltd.
- Victoria Motors Ltd
- Autorec Enterprise Ltd
- Adachi Auto Ltd.
- Bejo Motor Solutions (U) Ltd.
- Tokyo Auto Ltd.
- Ramzan Motors
- Al-Malik Group
- Muko Investments
- Autorec Enterprise Ltd.
- Japan Auto Traders Ltd.
- Cosmos Uganda Limited
- Delta Uganda
- Mantrac Uganda, Caterpillar Uganda
- Bajaj - For Motocycles
Click here to ask any question about Buying cars, trucks, Tractors, Machinery and Motocycles in Uganda
Common Automotives you will find in Uganda
In Uganda you will find a mix of New Cars, Used Cars ,Buses, Motorcycles, Tractors, Trucks all using the same roads.
Shapes of Cars you find in Uganda:
Hatchback | Convertible | Wagon | PickUp | SUV | Coupe | Sedan | Tractor Machinery |
Major Car Brands you will find Uganda
Toyota Cars in Uganda: The commonest and most markatable Cars in Uganda
Nissan Cars in Uganda: Diesel Buses , Pickups
Isuzu Cars in Uganda : Commonly Buses, and Trucks
Honda Cars in Uganda:
BMW Cars in Uganda: Recorgnized among luxurious Automotives
Mercedes-Benz Cars in Uganda: The legend of class among most Top Political Leaders, and Business Executives
Jeep : Few but have a name among high class Ugandans
Chrysler in Uganda: I have on rare occasions seen a Cardillac Escalader own by a local muscian
Ford : Mainly procured by NGOs
Volkswagen: Recorgnised among luxurious vehicles in Uganda
Peugeot: Is known for speed, the first
Mitsubishi: The new models are used by Government institutions especially Bank of Uganda, NGO, and Embassies
Lexus: I have seen some top corporate executives and business owners driving these cars
Dodge Magnum: Among the luxury group, relatively new on the streets of Kampala
Land Rover: The latest Range Rover models have become the Hallmark of class for renown Businessmen in Kampala
Subaru: Generally regarded as sports vehicles among Ugandans
Hummer: Less than 20 of these vehicles are available in the country.
Scania : Mainly Buses and Trucks
Progress: A relatively new brand on the Uganda Market
Datsun: Some Very Old Models can still be seen on roads even in Kampala
TATA: Mainly Trucks
Audi: Luxury Car , commonly used by Uganda musicians and city tycoons
MACK Trucks: Mainly Used in Road Construction
Higer: Chinese Buses
Among Tractors and Machinery, you will find
Caterpillar: I bellieve this to be Uganda's Market leading Machinery Brand in all aspects of heavy duty earth moving.
JCB: The Backhoe 3CX is quite common during road construction
Massey Ferguson: Market Leader among farm tractors
BOMAG : Mainly used for compressing purposes during road construction
Motobikes in Uganda: Mostly used as Boda Bodas meaning to transport passengers in Towns and in remote areas where public transport is scarse. However, sports bikes are also available in Uganda, especially during special occassions like weddings, and political campaings.
Click here to ask any question about the Automotive Brands Driven in Uganda
Getting your Car Insured in Uganda
Third Party Insurance: This type of Moto vehicle insurance is Mandatory in Uganda
Comprehensive Insurance: You will secure this kind of insurance policy as Mandatory if you have secured your car by a bank loan.
Below is a list of Insurance Companies operating in Uganda where you can purchase Moto vehicle related insurance products:
- African Trade Insurance Agency
- APA Insurance Company Uganda Limited
- East Africa General Insurance Company Limited
- East African Underwriters Limited
- Britam Insurance Company Uganda
- Excel Insurance Company Limited
- Chartis Uganda Limited
- First Insurance Company Limited
- Goldstar Insurance Company Limited
- Imperial Insurance Company Limited
- Insurance Company of East Africa Limited
- Jubilee Insurance Company Uganda Limited
- Leads Insurance Limited
- Lion Assurance Company Limited
- National Insurance Corporation
- NICO Insurance Uganda Limited
- Paramount Insurance Company Limited
- Pax Insurance Company Limited
- Rio Insurance Company Limited
- Statewide Insurance Company Limited
- UAP Insurance Company Uganda Limited
Click here to ask any question about Vehicle Insurance in Uganda
Hiring a car, Tractor,Bus or Machinery in UgandaWhether you want to:
hire a Self Drive Car
hire an Airport Shuttle
hire a Safari Car to Game Park
hire a Business Car to move within Kampala
hire a Tractor for Ploughing a commercial firm or
Buldozer, Backhoe , Excavator for Heavy duty earthmoving works
You will need to clarify these basics with your service provider else you will lose hard earned cash in unclear service terms:
Make sure the machine you're given is in good condition, lest you spend more on fuel on hidden costs
Be clear with your service provider wheather the driver or Operator is paid by you or the machine owner
Be careful with hourly charges, as some machine operators would take more time on a simple job just for the extra dime
Be clear with your service provider who will meet the cost of servicing the vehicle for the work
Get to know the fuel consumption for your vehicle and try to compare with the hiring cost, you could be trapped by a cheap car hire
offer, only to spend your so called savings on heavily gazzling engine.
Make sure you clearly get the correct cost of hire and probe for any hidden costsClick here to contact a trusted car hire service provider in Uganda
Routine Automobile Servicing, Repairs, and finding the right Autospare parts for your car in Uganda
When you own a car in Uganda, you will need to do regular servicing for it at the recommended milage by your Automotive servicing center. Normaly this can be done at any major fuel station within the country.
Routine servicing for your car would include replacing the engine oil, oil filter, refiling the Break fluid, the Power steeringn hydraulic fluid and replacing some other consumable parts like wind screen whippers.
At most Ugandan fuel and gas stations you will also find a tyre clinic and in some few others like City Oil you will also find facilities for Computerised wheel Balancing and wheel alignment.
For more complex replacements of parts in case you've crashed your car in a road traffic accident, you will need to find an appropriate moto mechanic. Within Kampala you will be able to find several car garages from which you can choose from, however, if you own a Mercedes Benz, Range Rover or Volkswagen, you might need to visit a specialized mechanic for advanced repairs.
Choosing the right Automotive mechanic in Uganda can sometimes be difficult alouding to the fact that many of these mechanics are high school drop outs and have learnt most of the work on the job. This does not mean that the educated mechanical engineers are altogether better, in fact , the graduates a rare to find in these garages and some of them are realy just good in theory and lack the practical aspects of Moto vehicle repair.
Toyota vehicles are by far the most easily repairable cars in Uganda because their spare parts are readily available and relatively cheap.
To find the right mechanic in Uganda therefore, you will need a word of mouth referal from a trusted friend who knows the core competensies of the different Automotive mechanics around town.
How to Fuel your car when in Uganda
In the face of volatile fuel Prices in Uganda , you want to match each of your hard earned dollars with the last Petrol drop in your car.
To save at the fuel pump, you need to first scout around town for cheap fuel prices before you fill your tank. Some fuel stations offer different oil prices depending on the competion in the different localities, you should therefore not be fooled by the brand names; SR Fuel Station in Kyengera does not necessarily offer the same cheap price for Diesel as SR Fuel station Nsangi.
When you're travelling to remote areas of Uganda and you need more than 100 litres of Diesel, be sure to first calculate the amount of fuel you will need. The fomular is 1 liter for every 6Km works for most diesel cars multiply by the distance, multiply by 2, then multiply by the prevailing cost of diesel in Uganda. Once you know the amount of fuel you need , fill your tank and store the rest of your fule in jerricans if possible. Beware of some fake fuel stations with unbalanced scales, especially if you're buying much fuel.
Buying all your fuel from Kampala will help you save on your fuel costs as you may find the price of the fuel double in some remote districts of Uganda. In regions like Karamoja you might even find no fuel in a whole district at the time you need it, therefore you remain safe buying all your fuel for the trip at once, near Kampala where fuel prices are relatively reasonable because of the stiff competition.
Most drivers I have spoken to in Uganda belive, and I don't disagree with them, that it is better to fuel your car very early in the morning or very late in the evening when the sun is setting. Their reasoning is that there is reduced vaporisation of the fuel in the tank and thus the fuel tends to stay longer in the vehicle when the car is fueled during these times of the day.
Every time that you re-fuel, check your oil and other fluid levels. Look for noticeable leaks throughout the engine compartment.
List of Major Companies in operating gas stations where you can fuel your car in Uganda
Financing the purchase of your car
In Uganda, you will find mainly two forms Automotive loans available from lenders for your business including; Secured loans and Unsecured Loans.
Secured loans: These are car finances which require auto loan applicants to pledge collateral such as the vehicle itself or any other valuable asset as security against the loan amount granted. The interest rates offered could be competitive and if approved for a personal or business car loan, you could choose flexible loan duration that suit your financial situation, subject to approval from your lender.
Unsecured auto loans: on the other hand, do not require the borrower to furnish any kind of collateral for financing a new or used car. Nevertheless, the interest rates provided on such auto finances could be much higher than those offered on secured type of car loans. Besides, even the loan repayment term could be shorter than that provided for secured loan finance.
To get the most affordable deal on your auto loan, you need to visit a car dealership and obtain numerous free no obligation quotes as well as loan repayment terms and conditions provided by various lenders and compare them. This could enable you to locate a lender that provides the best car loan which fits your financial budget and satisfies your financial needs and requirements.
Uganda today has many lenders that specialize in providing credit car financing solutions. If you can qualify for an auto loan with bad credit, you can always improve your credit scores by maintaining regularity in paying your monthly car loan installments.
Click here to find a list of Uganda banking institutions where you can secure a car loan
Uganda Auto Industry Business opportunities
Selling Cars: Most of the cars in Uganda are second hand and there is no sealing on car importation. There is also room for esblishing Car Manufacturing and assembly for cheaper more fuel efficient automotives.
Importing Auto Spare Parts and provinding Car repair services: Because most Uganda cars are second hand with earlier models, they need a lot of servicing and repairs
Selling Car Insurance: Insurance is generally a young industry in Uganda. As an example you could easily cash in on the Mandatory Third Party Insurance which the biggest of Ugandan car owners never use.
Hire Services: Most of the population uses public transport in form of Taxis, Buses, Boda Boda rides and Special Hire vehicles
Car washing Bay: With most of the roads lacking tarmac, your washing bay would surely have clients both in Dry and Rainy seasons.
Starting fuel and Car Service Station: While in Kampala you will find a good number of fuel and gas stations in some remote districts of Uganda like Kotido in Karamoja region, there is still a lack of steady fuel supply and professional car servicing.Click here for more information about starting a business in Uganda.
About Investing in Uganda
Starting a Company in Uganda
Motocycles in Uganda
Car Care in Uganda
Car Washing in Uganda
Mining and Construction Equipment in Uganda
Importing a Car in Uganda
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Vehicle insurance (also known as car insurance, motor insurance or auto insurance) is insurance for cars, trucks, motorcycles, and other road vehicles. Its primary use is to provide financial protection against physical damage or bodily injury resulting from traffic collisions and against liability that could also arise there from. The specific terms of vehicle insurance vary with legal regulations in each region. To a lesser degree vehicle insurance may additionally offer financial protection against theft of the vehicle and possibly damage to the vehicle, sustained from things other than traffic collisions, such as keying and damage sustained by colliding with stationary objects.
- 1 History
- 2 Public policies
- 2.1 Australia
- 2.1.1 Compulsory Third Party Insurance
- 2.2 Canada
- 2.3 Germany
- 2.4 Hungary
- 2.5 Indonesia
- 2.6 India
- 2.7 Ireland
- 2.8 Italy
- 2.9 New Zealand
- 2.10 Norway
- 2.11 Romania
- 2.12 Russian Federation
- 2.13 South Africa
- 2.14 Spain
- 2.15 United Arab Emirates
- 2.16 United Kingdom
- 2.16.1 Investigation into repair costs & fraudulent claims
- 2.17 United States
- 2.1 Australia
- 3 Coverage levels
- 4 Excess
- 4.1 Compulsory excess
- 4.2 Voluntary excess
- 5 Basis of premium charges
- 5.1 Gender
- 5.2 Age
- 5.3 U.S. driving history
- 5.4 Marital status
- 5.5 Profession
- 5.6 Vehicle classification
- 5.7 Distance
- 5.7.1 Reasonable distance estimation
- 5.7.2 Odometer-based systems
- 5.7.3 GPS-based system
- 5.7.4 OBDII-based system
- 5.8 Credit ratings
- 5.9 Behavior-based insurance
- 6 Repair insurance
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Widespread use of the automobile began after the First World War in urban areas. Cars were relatively fast and dangerous by that stage, yet there was still no compulsory form of car insurance anywhere in the world. This meant that injured victims would seldom get any compensation in an accident, and drivers often faced considerable costs for damage to their car and property.
A compulsory car insurance scheme was first introduced in the United Kingdom with the Road Traffic Act 1930. This ensured that all vehicle owners and drivers had to be insured for their liability for injury or death to third parties whilst their vehicle was being used on a public road. Germany enacted similar legislation in 1939.
In many jurisdictions it is compulsory to have vehicle insurance before using or keeping a motor vehicle on public roads. Most jurisdictions relate insurance to both the car and the driver, however the degree of each varies greatly.
Several jurisdictions have experimented with a "pay-as-you-drive" insurance plan which is paid through a gasoline tax (petrol tax). This would address issues of uninsured motorists and also charge based on the miles (kilometers) driven, which could theoretically increase the efficiency of the insurance, through streamlined collection.
In Australia, Compulsory Third Party (CTP) insurance is a state-based scheme that covers only personal injury liability. Comprehensive and Third Party Property Damage insurance are sold separately.
- Comprehensive insurance covers damage to third-party and the insured property and vehicle.
- Third Party Property Damage insurance covers damage to third-party property and vehicles, but not the insured vehicle.
- Third Party Property Damage with Fire and Theft insurance additionally covers the insured vehicle against fire and theft.
Compulsory Third Party Insurance
CTP insurance is linked to the registration of a vehicle. It is transferred when a vehicle already registered is sold. It covers the vehicle owner and any person who drives the vehicle against claims for liability in respect of the death or injury to people caused by the fault of the owner or driver, but not for damage. It covers the cost of all reasonable medical treatment for injuries received in the accident, loss of wages, cost of care services, and in some cases compensation for pain and suffering.
In New South Wales and the Northern Territory CTP insurance is compulsory; each vehicle must be insured when registered. A 'Greenslip,' another name by which CTP insurance is commonly known due to the colour of the form, must be obtained through one of the five licensed insurers in New South Wales. Suncorp and Allianz both hold two licences to issue CTP Greenslips – Suncorp under the GIO and AAMI licences and Allianz under the Allianz and CIC/Allianz licences. The remaining three licences to issue CTP Greenslips are held by QBE, Zurich and Insurance Australia Limited (NRMA). APIA and Shannons and InsureMyRide insurance also supply CTP insurance licensed by GIO. In addition to the Greenslip, an additional car insurance can be purchased through insurers in Australia. This will cover claims that the standard CTP insurance cannot provide. This is known as a comprehensive car insurance.
A similar scheme applies in the Australian Capital Territory through AAMI, GIO and NRMA (IAL).
In Victoria, Third Party Personal insurance from the Transport Accident Commission is similarly included, through a levy, in the vehicle registration fee. A similar scheme exists in Tasmania through the Motor Accidents Insurance Board.
In Queensland, CTP is a mandatory part of registration for a vehicle. There is choice of insurer but price is government controlled in a tight band.
In South Australia, Third Party Personal insurance from the Motor Accident Commission is included in the licence registration fee for people over 17. A similar scheme applies in Western Australia.
Several Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Quebec) provide a public auto insurance system while in the rest of the country insurance is provided privately [third party insurance is privatized in Quebec and is mandatory. The province covers everything but the vehicle(s)]. Basic auto insurance is mandatory throughout Canada with each province's government determining which benefits are included as minimum required auto insurance coverage and which benefits are options available for those seeking additional coverage. Accident benefits coverage is mandatory everywhere except for Newfoundland and Labrador. All provinces in Canada have some form of no-fault insurance available to accident victims. The difference from province to province is the extent to which tort or no-fault is emphasized. International drivers entering Canada are permitted to drive any vehicle their licence allows for the 3-month period for which they are allowed to use their international licence. International laws provide visitors to the country with an International Insurance Bond (IIB) until this 3-month period is over in which the international driver must provide themselves with Canadian Insurance. The IIB is reinstated every time the international driver enters the country. Damage to the driver's own vehicle is optional – one notable exception to this is in Saskatchewan, where SGI provides collision coverage (less than a $1000 deductible, such as a collision damage waiver) as part of its basic insurance policy. In Saskatchewan, residents have the option to have their auto insurance through a tort system but less than 0.5% of the population have taken this option.
GermanyInternational Motor Insurance Card (IVK)
Since 1939, it has been compulsory to have third party personal insurance before keeping a motor vehicle in all federal states of Germany. In addition, every vehicle owner is free to take out a comprehensive insurance policy. All types of car insurances are provided by several private insurers. The amount of insurance contribution is determined by several criteria, like the region, the type of car or the personal way of driving.
The minimum coverage defined by German law for car liability insurance / third party personal insurance is: 7.5 million euro for bodily injury (damage to people), 1 million euro for property damage and 50,000 euro for financial/fortune loss which is in no direct or indirect coherence with bodily injury or property damage. Insurance companies usually offer all-in/combined single limit insurances of 50 Million Euro or 100 Million Euro (about 141 Million Dollar) for bodily injury, property damage and other financial/fortune loss (usually with a bodily injury coverage limitation of 8 to 15 million euro for each bodily injured person).
Third-party vehicle insurance is mandatory for all vehicles in Hungary. No exemption is possible by money deposit. The premium covers all damage up to HUF 500M (about €1.8M) per accident without deductible. The coverage is extended to HUF 1,250M (about €4.5M) in case of personal injuries. Vehicle insurance policies from all EU-countries and some non-EU countries are valid in Hungary based on bilateral or multilateral agreements. Visitors with vehicle insurance not covered by such agreements are required to buy a monthly, renewable policy at the border.
Third-party vehicle Insurance is a mandatory requirement in Indonesia and each individual car and motorcycle must be insured or the vehicle will not be considered legal. Therefore, a motorist cannot drive the vehicle until it is insured. Third Party vehicle insurance is included through a levy in the vehicle registration fee which is paid to government institution that known as "Samsat". Third-Party Vehicle Insurance is regulated under Act No. 34 Year 1964 Re: Road Traffic Accident Fund and merely covers Bodily injury, and managed by a SOE named PT. Jasa Raharja (Persero).
IndiaA Sample Vehicle Insurance Certificate in India
Auto Insurance in India deals with the insurance covers for the loss or damage caused to the automobile or its parts due to natural and man-made calamities. It provides accident cover for individual owners of the vehicle while driving and also for passengers and third party legal liability. There are certain general insurance companies who also offer online insurance service for the vehicle.
Auto Insurance in India is a compulsory requirement for all new vehicles used whether for commercial or personal use. The insurance companies have tie-ups with leading automobile manufacturers. They offer their customers instant auto quotes. Auto premium is determined by a number of factors and the amount of premium increases with the rise in the price of the vehicle. The claims of the Auto Insurance in India can be accidental, theft claims or third party claims. Certain documents are required for claiming Auto Insurance in India, like duly signed claim form, RC copy of the vehicle, Driving license copy, FIR copy, Original estimate and policy copy.
There are different types of Auto Insurance in India :
Private Car Insurance – In the Auto Insurance in India, Private Car Insurance is the fastest growing sector as it is compulsory for all the new cars. The amount of premium depends on the make and value of the car, state where the car is registered and the year of manufacture.
Two Wheeler Insurance – The Two Wheeler Insurance under the Auto Insurance in India covers accidental insurance for the drivers of the vehicle. The amount of premium depends on the current showroom price multiplied by the depreciation rate fixed by the Tariff Advisory Committee at the time of the beginning of policy period.
Commercial Vehicle Insurance – Commercial Vehicle Insurance under the Auto Insurance in India provides cover for all the vehicles which are not used for personal purposes, like the Trucks and HMVs. The amount of premium depends on the showroom price of the vehicle at the commencement of the insurance period, make of the vehicle and the place of registration of the vehicle. The auto insurance generally includes:
- Loss or damage by accident, fire, lightning, self ignition, external explosion, burglary, housebreaking or theft, malicious act.
- Liability for third party injury/death, third party property and liability to paid driver
- On payment of appropriate additional premium, loss/damage to electrical/electronic accessories
The auto insurance does not include:
- Consequential loss, depreciation, mechanical and electrical breakdown, failure or breakage
- When vehicle is used outside the geographical area
- War or nuclear perils and drunken driving.
The Road Traffic Act, 1933 requires all drivers of mechanically propelled vehicles in public places to have at least third-party insurance, or to have obtained exemption – generally by depositing a (large) sum of money with the High Court as a guarantee against claims. In 1933 this figure was set at £15,000. The Road Traffic Act, 1961 (which is currently in force) repealed the 1933 act but replaced these sections with functionally identical sections.
From 1968, those making deposits require the consent of the Minister for Transport to do so, with the sum specified by the Minister.
Those not exempted from obtaining insurance must obtain a certificate of insurance from their insurance provider, and display a portion of this (an insurance disc) on their vehicles windscreen (if fitted). The certificate in full must be presented to a police station within ten days if requested by an officer. Proof of having insurance or an exemption must also be provided to pay for the motor tax.
Those injured or suffering property damage/loss due to uninsured drivers can claim against the Motor Insurance Bureau of Ireland's uninsured drivers fund, as can those injured (but not those suffering damage or loss) from hit and run offences.
The law 990/1969 requires that each motor vehicle or trailer standing or moving on a public road have third party insurance (called RCA, Responsabilità civile per gli autoveicoli). Historically, a part of the certificate of insurance must be displayed on the windscreen of the vehicle. This latter requirement was revoked in 2015, when a national database of insured vehicles was built by the Insurance Company Association (ANIA, Associazione Nazionale Imprese Assicuratrici) and the National Transportation Authority (Motorizzazione Civile) to verify (by private citizens and public authorities) if a vehicle is insured. There is no exemption policy to this law disposition.
Driving without the necessary insurance for that vehicle is an offence that can be prosecuted by the police and fines range from 841 to 3,287 euros. Police forces also have the power to seize a vehicle that does not have the necessary insurance in place, until the owner of the vehicle pays a fine and signs a new insurance policy. The same provision is applied when the vehicle is standing on public road.
Minimal insurance policies covers only third parties (including the insured person and third parties carried with the vehicle, but not the driver, if the two do not coincide). Also the third parties, fire and theft are common insurance policies, while the all inclusive policies (kasko policy) which include also damages of the vehicle causing the accident or the injuries. It is also common to include a renounce clause of the insurance company to compensate the damages against the insured person in some cases (usually in case of DUI or other infringement of the law by the driver).
The victims of accident caused by non-insured vehicles could be compensated by the Road's Victim Warranty Fund (Fondo garanzia vittime della strada), which is covered by a fixed amount (2.5%, as 2015) of each RCA insurance premium.
Within New Zealand, the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) provides nationwide no-fault personal injury insurance. Injuries involving motor vehicles operating on public roads are covered by the Motor Vehicle Account, for which premiums are collected through levies on petrol and through vehicle licensing fees.
In Norway, the vehicle owner must provide the minimum of liability insurance for his vehicle(s) – of any kind. Otherwise, the vehicle is illegal to use. If a person drives a vehicle belonging to someone else, and has an accident, the insurance will cover for damage done. Note that the policy carrier can choose to limit the coverage to only apply for family members or person over a certain age.
Romanian law mandates Răspundere Auto Civilă, a motor-vehicle liability insurance for all vehicle owners to cover damages to third parties.
Motor-vehicle insurance is mandatory for all owners according to Russian legislation.
South Africa allocates a percentage of the money from fuel into the Road Accident Fund, which goes towards compensating third parties in accidents.
Each motor vehicle in a public road to have a third party insurance (called "Seguro de responsabilidad civil").
Police forces have the power to seize vehicles that do not have the necessary insurance in place, until the owner of the vehicle pays the fine and sign a new insurance policy. Driving without the necessary insurance for that vehicle is an offence that will be prosecuted by the police and will receive penalty. Same provision is applied when the vehicle is standing on public road.
The minimal insurance policies covers only third parties (included the insured person and third parties carried with the vehicle, but not the driver, if the two do not coincide). Also the third parties, fire and theft are common insurance policies.
The victims of accident caused by non-insured vehicles could be compensated by a Warranty Fund, which is covered by a fixed amount of each insurance premium.
Since 2013 it is possible to contract an insurance by days as is possible in countries such as Germany and England.
United Arab Emirates
When buying car insurance in the United Arab Emirates, traffic department require a 13-month insurance certificate each time you register or renew a vehicle registration.
United KingdomUninsured cars seized by Merseyside Police on display outside the force's headquarters in 2006
In 1930, the UK government introduced a law that required every person who used a vehicle on the road to have at least third-party personal injury insurance. Today, this UK law is defined by the Road Traffic Act 1988, (generally referred to as the RTA 1988 as amended) which was last modified in 1991. The Act requires that motorists either be insured, or have made a specified deposit (£500,000 in 1991) and keeps the sum deposited with the Accountant General of the Supreme Court, against liability for injuries to others (including passengers) and for damage to other persons' property, resulting from use of a vehicle on a public road or in other public places.
It is an offence to use a motor vehicle, or allow others to use it without insurance that satisfies the requirements of the Act. This requirement applies while any part of a vehicle (even if a greater part of it is on private land) is on the public highway. No such legislation applies on private land. However, private land to which the public have a reasonable right of access (for example, a supermarket car park during opening hours) is considered to be included within the requirements of the Act.
Police have the power to seize vehicles that do not appear to have necessary insurance in place. A driver caught driving without insurance for the vehicle he/she is in charge of for the purposes of driving, is liable to be prosecuted by the police and, upon conviction, will receive either a fixed penalty or magistrate's courts penalty.
The registration number of the vehicle shown on the insurance policy, along with other relevant information including the effective dates of cover are transmitted electronically to the UK's Motor Insurance Database (MID) which exists to help reduce incidents of uninsured driving in the territory. The Police are able to spot-check vehicles that pass within range of automated number plate recognition (ANPR) cameras, that can search the MID instantly. It should be noted, however, that proof of insurance lies entirely with the issue of a Certificate of Motor Insurance, or cover note, by an Authorised Insurer which, to be valid, must have been previously 'delivered' to the insured person in accordance with the Act, and be printed in black ink on white paper.
The insurance certificate or cover note issued by the insurance company constitutes the only legal evidence that the policy to which the certificate relates satisfies the requirements of the relevant law applicable in Great Britain, Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man, the Island of Guernsey, the Island of Jersey and the Island of Alderney. The Act states that an authorised person, such as a police officer, may require a driver to produce an insurance certificate for inspection. If the driver cannot show the document immediately on request, and evidence of insurance cannot be found by other means such as the MID, then the Police are empowered to seize the vehicle instantly.
The immediate impounding of an apparently uninsured vehicle replaces the former method of dealing with insurance spot-checks where drivers were issued with an HORT/1 (so-called because the order was form number 1 issued by the Home Office Road Traffic dept). This 'ticket' was an order requiring that within seven days, from midnight of the date of issue, the driver concerned was to take a valid insurance certificate (and usually other driving documents as well) to a police station of the driver's choice. Failure to produce an insurance certificate was, and still is, an offence. The HORT/1 was commonly known – even by the issuing authorities when dealing with the public – as a "Producer". As these are seldom issued now and the MID relied upon to indicate the presence of insurance or not, it is incumbent upon the insurance industry to accurately and swiftly update the MID with current policy details and insurers that fail to do so can be penalised by their regulating body.
Vehicles kept in the UK must now be continuously insured. This requirement arose following a change in the law in June 2011 when a regulation known as Continuous Insurance Enforcement (CIE) came into force. The effect of this was that in the UK a vehicle must have a valid insurance policy in force whether or not it is kept on public roads and whether or not it is driven.
Insurer, and Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) / licence data, are shared by the relevant authorities including the Police and this forms an integral part of the mechanism of CIE. All UK registered vehicles, including those that are exempt from VED (for example, Historic Vehicles and cars with low or zero emissions) are subject to the VED taxation application process. Part of this is a check on the vehicle's insurance. A physical receipt for the payment of VED was issued by way of a paper disc which, prior to 1 October 2014, meant that all motorists in the UK were required to prominently display the tax disc on their vehicle when it was kept or driven on public roads. This helped to ensure that most people had adequate insurance on their vehicles because insurance cover was required to purchase a disc, although the insurance must merely have been valid at the time of purchase and not necessarily for the life of the tax disc. To address the problems that arise where a vehicle's insurance was subsequently cancelled but the tax disc remained in force and displayed on the vehicle and the vehicle then used without insurance, the CIE regulations are now able to be applied as the Driver & Vehicle Licence Authority (DVLA) and the MID databases are shared in real-time meaning that a taxed but uninsured vehicle is easily detectable by both authorities and Traffic Police. Post 1 October 2014 it is no longer a requirement to display a vehicle excise licence (tax disc) on a vehicle. This has come about because the whole VED process can now be administered electronically and alongside the MID, doing away with the expense, to the UK Government, of issuing paper discs.
If a vehicle is to be "laid up" for whatever reason, a Statutory Off Road Notification (SORN) must be submitted to the DVLA to declare that the vehicle is off the public roads and will not return to them unless SORN is cancelled by the vehicle's owner. Once a vehicle has been declared 'SORN' then the legal requirement to insure it ceases, although many vehicle owners may desire to maintain cover for loss of or damage to the vehicle while it is off the road. A vehicle that is then to be put back on the road must be subject to a new application for VED and be insured. Part of the VED application requires an electronic check of the MID, in this way the lawful presence of a vehicle on the road for both VED and insurance purposes is reinforced. It follows that the only circumstances in which a vehicle can have no insurance is if it has a valid SORN; was exempted from SORN (as untaxed on or before 31/10/1998 and has had no tax or SORN activity since); is recorded as 'stolen and not recovered' by the Police; is between registered keepers; or is scrapped.
Road Traffic Act Only Insurance differs from Third Party Only Insurance (detailed below) and is not often sold, unless to underpin, for example, a corporate body wishing to self-insure above the requirements of the Act. It provides the very minimum cover to satisfy the requirements of the Act. Road Traffic Act Only Insurance has a limit of £1,000,000 for damage to third party property, while third party only insurance typically has a greater limit for third party property damage.
Motor insurers in the UK place a limit on the amount that they are liable for in the event of a claim by third parties against a legitimate policy. This can be explained in part by the Great Heck Rail Crash that cost the insurers over £22 million in compensation for the fatalities and damage to property caused by the actions of the insured driver of a motor vehicle that caused the disaster. No limit applies to claims from third parties for death or personal injury, however UK car insurance is now commonly limited to £20m for any claim or series of claims for loss of or damage to third party property caused by or arising out of one incident.
The minimum level of insurance cover generally available, and which satisfies the requirement of the Act, is called third party only insurance. The level of cover provided by Third party only insurance is basic, but does exceed the requirements of the act. This insurance covers any liability to third parties, but does not cover any other risks.
More commonly purchased is third party, fire and theft. This covers all third party liabilities and also covers the vehicle owner against the destruction of the vehicle by fire (whether malicious or due to a vehicle fault) and theft of the insured vehicle. It may or may not cover vandalism. This kind of insurance and the two preceding types do not cover damage to the vehicle caused by the driver or other hazards.
Comprehensive insurance covers all of the above and damage to the vehicle caused by the driver themselves, as well as vandalism and other risks. This is usually the most expensive type of insurance. Interestingly, it is custom in the UK for insurance customers to refer to their Comprehensive Insurance as "Fully Comprehensive" or popularly, "Fully Comp". This is a tautology as the word 'Comprehensive' means full.
Some classes of vehicle ownership, or use, are "Crown Exempt" from the requirement to be covered under the Act including vehicles owned or operated by certain councils and local authorities, national park authorities, education authorities, police authorities, fire authorities, health service bodies, the security services and vehicles used to or from Shipping Salvage purposes. Although exempt from the requirement to insure this provides no immunity against claims being made against them, so an otherwise Crown Exempt authority may chose to insure conventionally, preferring to incur the known expense of insurance premiums rather than accept the open-ended exposure of effectively, self-insuring under Crown Exemption.
The Motor Insurers' Bureau (MIB) compensates the victims of road accidents caused by uninsured and untraced motorists. It also operates the MID, which contain details of every insured vehicle in the country and acts as a means to share information between Insurance Companies.
Soon after the introduction of the Road Traffic Act in 1930, unexpected issues arose when motorists needed to drive a vehicle other than their own in genuine emergency circumstances. Volunteering to move a vehicle, for example, where another motorist had been taken ill or been involved in an accident, could lead to the 'assisting' driver being prosecuted for no insurance if the other car's insurance did not cover use by any driver. To alleviate this situation an extension to UK Car Insurances was introduced allowing a Policyholder to personally drive any other motor car not belonging to him/her and not hired to him/her under a hire purchase or leasing agreement. This extension of cover, known as "Driving Other Cars" (where it is granted) usually applies to the Policyholder only. The cover provided is for Third Party Risks only and there is absolutely no cover for loss of or damage to the vehicle being driven. This aspect of UK motor insurance is the only one that purports to cover the driving of a vehicle, not use.
On 1 March 2011 the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg ruled that gender could no longer be used by insurers to set car insurance premiums. The new ruling will come into action from December 2012.
Investigation into repair costs & fraudulent claims
In September 2012 it was announced that the Competition Commission had launched an investigation into the UK system for credit repairs and credit hire of an alternative vehicle leading to claims from third parties following an accident. Where their client is considered to be not at fault, Accident Management Companies will take over the running of their client's claim and arrange everything for them, usually on a 'No Win - No Fee' basis. It was shown that the insurers of the at-fault vehicle, were unable to intervene in order to have control over the costs that were applied to the claim by means of repairs, storage, vehicle hire, referral fees and personal injury. The subsequent cost of some items submitted for consideration has been a cause for concern over recent years as this has caused an increase in the premium costs, contrary to the general duty of all involved to mitigate the cost of claims. Also, the recent craze of "Cash for crash" has substantially raised the cost of policies. This is where two parties arrange a collision between their vehicles and one driver making excessive claims for damage and non existent injuries to themselves and the passengers that they had arranged to be "in the vehicle" at the time of the collision. Another recent development has seen crashes being caused deliberately by a driver "slamming" on their brakes so that the driver behind hits them, this is usually carried out at roundabout junctions, when the following driver is looking to the right for oncoming traffic and does not notice that the vehicle in front has suddenly stopped for no reason. The 'staging' of a motor collision on the Public Highway for the purpose of attempting an insurance fraud is considered by the Courts to be organised crime and upon conviction is dealt with as such.
United StatesMain article: Vehicle insurance in the United States
The regulations for vehicle insurance differ with each of the 50 US states and other territories, with each U.S. state having its own mandatory minimum coverage requirements (see separate main article). Each of the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia requires drivers to have insurance coverage for both bodily injury and property damage, but the minimum amount of coverage required by law varies by state. For example, minimum bodily injury liability coverage requirements range from $20,000 in Florida to $100,000 in Alaska and Maine, while minimum property damage liability requirements range from $5,000 (four states) to $25,000 (16 states).
Vehicle insurance can cover some or all of the following items:
- The insured party (medical payments)
- Property damage caused by the insured
- The insured vehicle (physical damage)
- Third parties (car and people, property damage and bodily injury)
- Third party, fire and theft
- In some jurisdictions coverage for injuries to persons riding in the insured vehicle is available without regard to fault in the auto accident (No Fault Auto Insurance)
- The cost to rent a vehicle if yours is damaged.
- The cost to tow your vehicle to a repair facility.
- Accidents involving uninsured motorists.
Different policies specify the circumstances under which each item is covered. For example, a vehicle can be insured against theft, fire damage, or accident damage independently.
If a vehicle is declared a total loss and the vehicle's market value is less than the amount that is still owed to the bank that is financing the vehicle, GAP insurance may cover the difference. Not all auto insurance policies include GAP insurance. GAP insurance is often offered by the finance company at time the vehicle is purchased.
An excess payment, also known as a deductible, is a fixed contribution that must be paid each time a car is repaired with the charges billed to an automotive insurance policy. Normally this payment is made directly to the accident repair "garage" (the term "garage" refers to an establishment where vehicles are serviced and repaired) when the owner collects the car. If one's car is declared to be a "write off" (or "totaled"), then the insurance company will deduct the excess agreed on the policy from the settlement payment it makes to the owner.
If the accident was the other driver's fault, and this fault is accepted by the third party's insurer, then the vehicle owner may be able to reclaim the excess payment from the other person's insurance company.
The excess itself can also be protected by a motor excess insurance policy.
A compulsory excess is the minimum excess payment the insurer will accept on the insurance policy. Minimum excesses vary according to the personal details, driving record and the insurance company. For example, young or inexperienced drivers and types of incident can incur additional compulsory excess charges.
To reduce the insurance premium, the insured party may offer to pay a higher excess (deductible) than the compulsory excess demanded by the insurance company. The voluntary excess is the extra amount, over and above the compulsory excess, that is agreed to be paid in the event of a claim on the policy. As a bigger excess reduces the financial risk carried by the insurer, the insurer is able to offer a significantly lower premium.
Basis of premium chargesMain article: auto insurance risk selection
Depending on the jurisdiction, the insurance premium can be either mandated by the government or determined by the insurance company, in accordance with a framework of regulations set by the government. Often, the insurer will have more freedom to set the price on physical damage coverages than on mandatory liability coverages.
When the premium is not mandated by the government, it is usually derived from the calculations of an actuary, based on statistical data. The premium can vary depending on many factors that are believed to affect the expected cost of future claims. Those factors can include the car characteristics, the coverage selected (deductible, limit, covered perils), the profile of the driver (age, gender, driving history) and the usage of the car (commute to work or not, predicted annual distance driven).
Because male drivers, especially younger ones, are on average often regarded as tending to be more aggressive, the premiums charged for policies on vehicles whose primary driver is male are often higher. This discrimination may be dropped if the driver is past a certain age.
On 1 March 2011, the European Court of Justice decided insurance companies who used gender as a risk factor when calculating insurance premiums were breaching EU equality laws. The Court ruled that car-insurance companies were discriminating against men. However, in some places, such as the UK, companies have used the standard practice of discrimination based on profession to still use gender as a factor, albeit indirectly. Professions which are more typically practised by men are deemed as being more risky even if they had not been prior to the Court's ruling while the converse is applied to professions predominant among women. Another effect of the ruling has been that, while the premiums for men have been lowered, they have been raised for women. This equalisation effect has also been seen in other types of insurance for individuals, such as life insurance.
Teenage drivers who have no driving record will have higher car insurance premiums. However, young drivers are often offered discounts if they undertake further driver training on recognized courses, such as the Pass Plus scheme in the UK. In the US many insurers offer a good-grade discount to students with a good academic record and resident-student discounts to those who live away from home. Generally insurance premiums tend to become lower at the age of 25. Some insurance companies offer "stand alone" car insurance policies specifically for teenagers with lower premiums. By placing restrictions on teenagers' driving (forbidding driving after dark, or giving rides to other teens, for example), these companies effectively reduce their risk.
Senior drivers are often eligible for retirement discounts, reflecting the lower average miles driven by this age group. However, rates may increase for senior drivers after age 65, due to increased risk associated with much older drivers. Typically, the increased risk for drivers over 65 years of age is associated with slower reflexes, reaction times, and being more injury-prone.
U.S. driving history
In most U.S. states, moving violations, including running red lights and speeding, assess points on a driver's driving record. Since more points indicate an increased risk of future violations, insurance companies periodically review drivers' records, and may raise premiums accordingly. Rating practices, such as debit for a poor driving history, are not dictated by law. Many insurers allow one moving violation every three to five years before increasing premiums. Accidents affect insurance premiums similarly. Depending on the severity of the accident and the number of points assessed, rates can increase by as much as twenty to thirty percent. Any motoring convictions should be disclosed to insurers, as the driver is assessed by risk from prior experiences while driving on the road.
Statistics show that married drivers average fewer accidents than the rest of the population so policy owners who are married often receive lower premiums than single persons.
The profession of the driver may be used as a factor to determine premiums. Certain professions may be deemed more likely to result in damages if they regularly involve more travel or the carrying of expensive equipment or stock or if they are predominant either among women or among men.
Two of the most important factors that go into determining the underwriting risk on motorized vehicles are: performance capability and retail cost. The most commonly available providers of auto insurance have underwriting restrictions against vehicles that are either designed to be capable of higher speeds and performance levels, or vehicles that retail above a certain dollar amount. Vehicles that are commonly considered luxury automobiles usually carry more expensive physical damage premiums because they are more expensive to replace. Vehicles that can be classified as high performance autos will carry higher premiums generally because there is greater opportunity for risky driving behavior. Motorcycle insurance may carry lower property-damage premiums because the risk of damage to other vehicles is minimal, yet have higher liability or personal-injury premiums, because motorcycle riders face different physical risks while on the road. Risk classification on automobiles also takes into account the statistical analysis of reported theft, accidents, and mechanical malfunction on every given year, make, and model of auto.
Some car insurance plans do not differentiate in regard to how much the car is used. There are however low-mileage discounts offered by some insurance providers. Other methods of differentiation would include: over-road distance between the ordinary residence of a subject and their ordinary, daily destinations.
Reasonable distance estimation
Another important factor in determining car-insurance premiums involves the annual mileage put on the vehicle, and for what reason. Driving to and from work every day at a specified distance, especially in urban areas where common traffic routes are known, presents different risks than how a retiree who does not work any longer may use their vehicle. Common practice has been that this information was provided solely by the insured person, but some insurance providers have started to collect regular odometer readings to verify the risk.
Cents Per Mile Now (1986) advocates classified odometer-mile rates, a type of usage-based insurance. After the company's risk factors have been applied, and the customer has accepted the per-mile rate offered, then customers buy prepaid miles of insurance protection as needed, like buying gallons of gasoline (litres of petrol). Insurance automatically ends when the odometer limit (recorded on the car's insurance ID card) is reached, unless more distance is bought. Customers keep track of miles on their own odometer to know when to buy more. The company does no after-the-fact billing of the customer, and the customer doesn't have to estimate a "future annual mileage" figure for the company to obtain a discount. In the event of a traffic stop, an officer could easily verify that the insurance is current, by comparing the figure on the insurance card to that on the odometer.
Critics point out the possibility of cheating the system by odometer tampering. Although the newer electronic odometers are difficult to roll back, they can still be defeated by disconnecting the odometer wires and reconnecting them later. However, as the Cents Per Mile Now website points out:
As a practical matter, resetting odometers requires equipment plus expertise that makes stealing insurance risky and uneconomical. For example, to steal 20,000 miles [32,200 km] of continuous protection while paying for only the 2000 in the 35000 to 37000 range on the odometer, the resetting would have to be done at least nine times, to keep the odometer reading within the narrow 2,000-mile [3,200 km] covered range. There are also powerful legal deterrents to this way of stealing insurance protection. Odometers have always served as the measuring device for resale value, rental and leasing charges, warranty limits, mechanical breakdown insurance, and cents-per-mile tax deductions or reimbursements for business or government travel. Odometer tampering, detected during claim processing, voids the insurance and, under decades-old state and federal law, is punishable by heavy fines and jail.
Under the cents-per-mile system, rewards for driving less are delivered automatically, without the need for administratively cumbersome and costly GPS technology. Uniform per-mile exposure measurement for the first time provides the basis for statistically valid rate classes. Insurer premium income automatically keeps pace with increases or decreases in driving activity, cutting back on resulting insurer demand for rate increases and preventing today's windfalls to insurers, when decreased driving activity lowers costs but not premiums.
In 1998, the Progressive Insurance company started a pilot program in Texas, in which drivers received a discount for installing a GPS-based device that tracked their driving behavior and reported the results via cellular phone to the company. Policyholders were reportedly more upset about having to pay for the expensive device than they were over privacy concerns. The program was discontinued in 2000. In following years many policies (including Progressive) have been trialed and successfully introduced worldwide into what are referred to as Telematic Insurance. Such 'telematic' policies typically are based on black-box insurance technology, such devices derive from stolen vehicle and fleet tracking but are used for insurance purposes. Since 2010 GPS-based and Telematic Insurance systems have become more mainstream in the auto insurance market not just aimed at specialised auto-fleet markets or high value vehicles (with an emphasis on stolen vehicle recovery). Modern GPS-based systems are branded as 'PAYD' Pay As You Drive insurance policies, 'PHYD' Pay How You Drive or since 2012 Smartphone auto insurance policies which utilise smartphones as a GPS sensor, e.g. . A detailed survey of the smartphone as measurement probe for insurance telematics is provided in 
The Progressive Corporation launched Snapshot to give drivers a customized insurance rate based on recording how, how much, and when their car is driven. Snapshot is currently available in 46 states plus the District of Columbia. Because insurance is regulated at the state level, Snapshot is currently not available in Alaska, California, Hawaii, and North Carolina. Driving data is transmitted to the company using an on-board telematic device. The device connects to a car's OnBoard Diagnostic (OBD-II) port (all petrol automobiles in the USA built after 1996 have an OBD-II.) and transmits speed, time of day and number of miles the car is driven. Cars that are driven less often, in less-risky ways, and at less-risky times of day, can receive large discounts. Progressive has received patents on its methods and systems of implementing usage-based insurance and has licensed these methods and systems to other companies.
Metromile also uses an OBDII-based system for their mileage-based insurance. They offer a true pay-per-mile insurance where behavior or driving style is not taken into account, and the user only pays a base rate along with a fixed rate per mile. The OBD-II device measures mileage and then transmits mileage data to servers. This is intended to be an affordable car insurance policy for low-mileage drivers. Metromile is currently only offering personal car insurance policies and is available in California, Oregon, Washington, and Illinois.
Insurance companies have started using credit ratings of their policyholders to determine risk. Drivers with good credit scores get lower insurance premiums, as it is believed that they are more financially stable, more responsible and have the financial means to better maintain their vehicles. Those with lower credit scores can have their premiums raised or insurance canceled outright. It has been shown that good drivers with spotty credit records could be charged higher premiums than bad drivers with good credit records.
The use of non-intrusive load monitoring to detect drunk driving and other risky behaviors has been proposed. A US patent application combining this technology with a usage based insurance product to create a new type of behavior based auto insurance product is currently open for public comment on peer to patent. See Behavior-based safety. Behaviour based Insurance focusing upon driving is often called Telematics or Telematics2.0 in some cases monitoring focus upon behavioural analysis such as smooth driving.
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Auto repair insurance is an extension of car insurance available in all 50 of the United States that covers the natural wear and tear on a vehicle, independent of damages related to a car accident.
Some drivers opt to buy the insurance as a means of protection against costly breakdowns unrelated to an accident. In contrast to more standard and basic coverages such as comprehensive and collision insurance, auto repair insurance does not cover a vehicle when it is damaged in a collision, during a natural disaster or at the hands of vandals.
For many it is an attractive option for protection after the warranties on their cars expire.
Providers can also offer sub-divisions of auto repair insurance. There is standard repair insurance which covers the wear and tear of vehicles, and naturally occurring breakdowns. Some companies will only offer mechanical breakdown insurance, which only covers repairs necessary when breakable parts need to be fixed or replaced. These parts include transmissions, oil pumps, pistons, timing gears, flywheels, valves, axles and joints.
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- ^ Smartphone-Based Measurement Systems for Road Vehicle Traffic Monitoring and Usage-Based Insurance, P. Händel, J. Ohlsson, M. Ohlsson, I. Skog, and E. Nygren, IEEE SYSTEMS JOURNAL, 
- ^ P. Handel, I. Skog, J. Wahlstrom, F. Bonawide, R. Welsh, J. Ohlsson, and M. Ohlsson: Insurance telematics: opportunities and challenges with the smartphone solution, Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE, vol.6, no.4, pp. 57-70, winter 2014, doi: 10.1109/MITS.2014.2343262
- ^ a b "Snapshot, Snapshot Discount: Pay As You Drive (PAYD)". Progressive.com.
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- ^ "Bad Credit worse than bad driving". Wall Street Journal. 11 February 2009. Archived from the original on 5 November 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
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- ^ Lerner, Michele (20 September 2011). "Auto repair insurance pledges to pay your breakdown bills". Fox Business. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
- How Car Insurance Works at HowStuffWorks
|Types of insurance|| |
|Insurance policy and law|| |
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This article is about the short-term rental of cars. For the shared use of cars by persons with similar travel needs, see Carpool. For the 2015 British sitcom, see Peter Kay's Car Share.
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Carsharing or car sharing (US) or car clubs (UK) is a model of car rental where people rent cars for short periods of time, often by the hour. They are attractive to customers who make only occasional use of a vehicle, as well as others who would like occasional access to a vehicle of a different type than they use day-to-day. The organization renting the cars may be a commercial business or the users may be organized as a company, public agency, cooperative, or ad hoc grouping.
Carsharing services are available in over a thousand cities in many nations.
As of December 2012[update], there were an estimated 1.7 million car-sharing members in 27 countries, including so-called peer-to-peer services, according to the Transportation Sustainability Research Center at U.C. Berkeley. Of these, 800,000 were car-sharing members in the United States. As of November 2014[update], the world's largest carsharing networks across North America and Europe are Zipcar with 767,000 members and 11,000 vehicles, and Car2Go with over 900,000 members and 12,000 cars.
According to Navigant Consulting, global carsharing services revenue will approach US$1 billion in 2013 and grow to US$6.2 billion by 2020, with over 12 million members worldwide. The main factors driving the growth of carsharing are the rising levels of congestion faced by city dwellers; shifting generational mindsets about car ownership; the increasing costs of personal vehicle ownership; and a convergence of business models. Carsharing contributes to sustainable transport because it is a less car intensive means of urban transport, and according to The Economist, carsharing can reduce car ownership at an estimated rate of one rental car replacing 15 owned vehicles.
- 1 International terminology
- 2 Description
- 3 How it works
- 4 History
- 5 Handicapped accessibility
- 6 Innovations
- 7 Insurance
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes and references
- 10 External links
In the United Kingdom, where it is a recent development, the term "car clubs" is used for what in the United States is called "carsharing", "car sharing" or "car-sharing". In the UK, "car sharing" refers to what is called "carpooling" or "ride sharing" in the US, namely the shared use of a car for a specific journey, in particular for commuting to work, often by people who each have a car but travel together to save costs; in South Africa, this is called a "lift scheme". In the UK, a "car pool" refers to a fleet of cars made available by an organization to its employees (which is usually referred to as a "motor pool" in the US), for example to travel to customers or between different office locations.
In India, in contrast to the vast majority of the Indian car rental market that is defined by chauffeured-service, Indian people refer to car-sharing as "self-drive."
DescriptionZipcar vehicle in downtown Washington, D.C. Hertz on Demand vehicles in designated parking area in Park Ridge, New Jersey Toyota Prius used by PhillyCarShare service, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Zipvan is popular in London Enjoy car in Turin, Italy Greenwheels car VW up! in Germany DB Carsharing vehicle in Ravensburg, Germany cambio CarSharing car in Bremen, Germany Mobility Carsharing vehicle Bern, Switzerland
The principle of carsharing is that individuals gain the benefits of private cars without the costs and responsibilities of ownership. Instead a household accesses a fleet of vehicles on an as-needed basis. Carsharing may be thought of as organized short-term car rental.
Carsharing has sprung up in different parts of the world and operations are organized in many different ways in different places. Sizes of organizations vary from one shared car, and only a handful of sharers to organizations that serve a complete urban area.
Carsharing differs from traditional car rentals in the following ways:
- Carsharing is not limited by office hours
- Reservation, pickup, and return is all self-service
- Vehicles can be rented by the minute, by the hour, as well as by the day
- Users are members and have been pre-approved to drive (background driving checks have been performed and a payment mechanism has been established)
- Vehicle locations are distributed throughout the service area, and often located for access by public transport.
- Insurance: state minimum liability insurance (only $5000 in some states), comprehensive and collision insurance. They do not provide uninsured, under-insured or personal injury protection insurance.
- Fuel costs are included in the rates.
- Vehicles are not serviced (cleaning, fueling) after each use, although certain programs (such as Car2Go) continuously clean and fuel their fleet
Some carshare operations (CSOs) cooperate with local car rental firms, in particular in situations wherein classic rental may be the cheaper option.
Carsharing can provide numerous transportation, land use, environmental, and social benefits. Neighborhood carsharing is often promoted as an alternative to owning a car where public transit, walking, and cycling can be used most of the time and a car is only necessary for out-of-town trips, moving large items, or special occasions. It can also be an alternative to owning multiple cars for households with more than one driver. A long-term study of City CarShare members found that 30 percent of households that joined sold a car; others delayed purchasing one. Transit use, bicycling, and walking also increased among members. A study of driving behavior of members from major carsharing organizations found an average decline in 27% of annual vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT).
Carsharing is generally not cost-effective for commuting to a full-time job on a regular basis. Most carsharing advocates, operators, and cooperating public agencies believe that those who do not drive daily or who drive less than 10,000 kilometers (about 6,200 statute miles) annually may find carsharing to be more cost-effective than car ownership. But variations of 50% on this figure are reported by operators and others depending on local context. If occasional use of a shared vehicle costs significantly less than car ownership, then carsharing makes automobile use more accessible to low-income households.
Carsharing can also help reduce congestion and pollution. Replacing private automobiles with shared ones directly reduces demand for parking spaces. The fact that only a certain number of cars can be in use at any one time may reduce traffic congestion at peak times. Even more important for congestion, the strong metering of costs provides a cost incentive to drive less. With owned automobiles many expenses are sunk costs and thus independent of how much the car is driven (such as original purchase, insurance, registration, and some maintenance).
Successful carsharing development has tended to be associated mainly with densely populated areas, such as city centers and more recently university and other campuses. There are some programs (mostly in Europe) for providing services in lower density and rural areas. Low-density areas are considered more difficult to serve with carsharing because of the lack of alternative modes of transportation and the potentially larger distance that users must travel to reach the cars.
People who have joined carsharing tend to sell either their primary, secondary, or another off-hand car, after using the service. This reduces the cost of transportation per month by an average of $135 – $435, based on University of Berkeley's Research in 2008.
How it works
The technology of CSOs varies enormously, from simple manual systems using key boxes and log books to increasingly complex computer-based systems (e.g. partially automated and fully automated systems) with supporting software packages that handle a growing array of back office functions. The simplest CSOs have only one or two pick-up points, but more advanced systems allow cars to be picked up and dropped off at any available public parking space within a designated operating area.
While differing markedly in their objectives, size, business models, levels of ambition, technology and target markets, these programs do share many features. The more established operations usually require a check of past driving records and a monthly or annual fee in order to become a member. The cost and maximum time a car may be used also varies.
To make a reservation, one can either make a reservation online, by phone, or by text messages depending on the company’s flexibility. Then the company usually asks all the necessary information such as:
- What time will the car be needed?
- How long will the car be in use?
- Where would you like to pick up the car?
- What type of car is preferred?
There is a higher chance of availability the earlier the reservation is. If a reservation is cancelled however, one may still be charged.
Once the reservations are completed and confirmed, the car will then be delivered at the time and place scheduled. There will be a small card reader mounted on the windshield. Once the customer places their membership card on the reader, it will use what is called blink technology to activate the time and unlock the car. The reader will not work until it is time for that specific reservation. The keys can then be found somewhere inside the car such as the glove compartment. Depending on the company, the customer may be provided with a key to a lock box that contains the ignition key itself. Once the customer is set, they are off to their next destination.
Although members are often responsible for cleaning the car and filling up the tank when low, the car sharing company is generally responsible for the long-term maintenance of the vehicles. Members have to make sure that when they are finished, the car is ready for the next user to move on.
HistoryUhaul Car Share off-street drop/pick up area on Shattuck Avenue, Berkely, California Car2Go Smart EDs electric cars charging in Amsterdam Autolib' all-electric Bolloré Bluecars at a pick-up charging station in Paris Peugeot iOn electric car from Ibilek carsharing service in Bilbao, Spain Zipcar plug-in converted Toyota Prius recharging at a reserved public charging station in front of San Francisco City Hall DriveNow operates with BMW ActiveE electric cars in the San Francisco Bay Area
The first reference to carsharing in print identifies the Selbstfahrergenossenschaft carshare program in a housing cooperative that got underway in Zürich in 1948, but there was no known formal development of the concept in the next few years. By the 1960s, as innovators, industrialists, cities, and public authorities studied the possibility of high-technology transportation—mainly computer-based small vehicle systems (almost all of them on separate guideways)—it was possible to spot some early precursors to present-day service ideas and control technologies.
The early 1970s saw the first whole-system carshare projects. The ProcoTip system in France lasted only about two years. A much more ambitious project called the Witkar was launched in Amsterdam by the founders of the 1965 white bicycles project. A sophisticated project based on small electric vehicles, electronic controls for reservations and return, and plans for a large number of stations covering the entire city, the project endured into the mid-1980s before finally being abandoned.
In July, 1977, the first official British experiment in carsharing started in Suffolk. An office in Ipswich provided a Share-a-Car service for "putting motorists who are interested in sharing car journeys in touch with each other." In 1978, the Agricultural Research Council granted the University of Leeds £16,577 "for an investigation and simulation of car sharing". The scheme was not intended for different drivers of a single car but for a driver offering seats in his car (Real-time ridesharing).
The 1980s and first half of the 1990s was a "coming of age" period for carsharing, with continued slow growth, mainly of smaller non-profit systems, many in Switzerland and Germany, but also on a smaller scale in Canada, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States.
Zipcar, Flexcar (bought by Zipcar in 2007), and City Car Club were all started in 2000. Several car rental companies launched their own car sharing services beginning in 2008, including Avis On Location by Avis, Hertz on Demand (formerly known as Connect by Hertz), operating in the U.S. and Europe; Uhaul Car Share owned by U-Haul, and WeCar by Enterprise Rent-A-Car. By 2010, when various peer-to-peer carsharing systems were introduced. As of September 2012[update] Zipcar accounted for 80% of the U.S car sharing market and half of all car-sharers worldwide with 730,000 members sharing 11,000 vehicles.
Carsharing has also spread to the developing world (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and Turkey) because population density is often a critical determinant of success for carsharing, and developing nations often have dense urban populations.
Many building developers are now incorporating share-cars into their developments as an added value to tenants, and municipal government bodies around the world are starting to stipulate the implementation of a carsharing service in new buildings, as a sustainability initiative. These trends have created a demand for a new model of carsharing - residential, private-access share-cars that are typically underwritten by the Homeowner association.
Adapting carsharing vehicles to persons with physical disabilities presents special challenges not faced by traditional car rental. With car sharing no mechanic is present to install or adjust adaptive equipment, and that equipment is left unattended after each use. In 2008, City CarShare introduced the first wheelchair carrying car share vehicle, the Access Mobile, specifically designed as a fleet vehicle shared with, not segregated from, non-wheelchair users.
Car sharing operators are increasingly opting to brand parts of their fleets with third-party advertising in order to increase revenue and improve competitiveness. Transit media, as this out-of-home advertising medium is referred to, is a strategy currently (or soon to be) employed by larger car sharing operators such, Canada's AutoShare and the UK's City Car Club.
For future applications, many car sharing companies are now investing in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). With the use of these types of vehicles, cost of gas consumption can be greatly reduced. Since most customers do not need the vehicle for long amounts of time or distance, it gives the car sharing company time to collect and recharge these vehicles for additional use. This application can greatly reduce carbon emissions and improve city environments. Another innovation is to calculate and compensate all emissions on behalf of your drivers according to the Kyoto protocol, e.g. via reforestation schemes. The world´s first certified carbon neutral car sharing service is Respiro car sharing in Madrid.
Also, car sharing can be considered as an example of a technological change in consumption, which is a ‘process of mutual adjustment between innovation and its socio-economic environment.’ This type of innovation poses much potential due to the current state of technological change based on today’s passenger transportation capabilities.
Other countries are already moving into designing concept cars that is solely based as an urban public vehicle. The Phiaro P70t Conch, Japan’s new concept vehicle, is a completely battery-powered, three-seater vehicle which was designed for the purpose of car sharing. The vehicle was made to be small and compact enough to be driven around urban environments without sacrificing parking. The promotion of these kinds of concept vehicles have caught the attention of automotive companies worldwide.
In Germany a pilot project has been started by the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon to replace regular pool vehicles with a corporate carsharing system. Corporate carsharing is a more economical solution than company cars in regard to administration, travel and running expenses and maintenance.
The amount of insurance provided greatly varies among companies, but all carsharing firms provide insurance that at least meets the legal minimum requirements for the given region of operation. However, critics such as Rob Lieber of The New York Times has criticized firms such as Zipcar for the paltry coverage afforded carsharing drivers.
- Access economy
- Alternatives to the automobile
- Car rental
- Fleet vehicle
- Peer-to-peer carsharing
- Momo car-sharing, European demonstration project on carsharing
- Real-time ridesharing
Notes and references
- ^ "One Thousand World Carshare Cities in 2009". World Carshare Consortium. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Steinberg, Stephanie; Vlasic, Bill (25 January 2013). "Car-Sharing Services Grow, and Expand Options". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ a b "Zipcar Reports 2012 Third Quarter Results" (Press release). Ir.zipcar.com. 8 November 2012. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Gibbs, Nick (13 November 2014). "Car2Go poised to top 1-million users". Automotive News. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Martin, Richard (22 August 2013). "Carsharing Services Will Surpass 12 Million Members Worldwide by 2020". Navigant Consulting. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Navigant Research (22 August 2013). "Navigant forecasts global carsharing services to grow to $6.2B by 2020". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ "Seeing the back of the car". The Economist. 22 September 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ "West Sussex County Council: Car clubs". West Sussex County Council. 11 December 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ "Car hire and car clubs - Driving your car". Which? Car. 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Bergen, Mark (8 August 2013). "Indian Drivers Attract Larry Summers". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- ^ a b Shaheen, Susan; Sperling, Daniel; Wagner, Conrad (Summer 1998). "Carsharing in Europe and North America: Past, Present, and Future" (PDF). Transportation Quarterly. pp. 35–52. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Shaheen, Susan A.; Cohen, Adam P.; Chung, Mellisa S. "North American Carsharing: 10-Year Retrospective". Transportation Research Record. 2010: 35–44. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- ^ Cervero, Robert; Golub, Aaron; Nee, Brendan (2007). "City CarShare: Longer-Term Travel Demand and Car Ownership Impacts". Institute of Urban and Regional Development University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- ^ Shaheen, S.; Martin, E.; Lidicker, J. (2010). "Impact of Carsharing Household Vehicle Holdings". Transportation Research Record. 2143: 150–158. doi:10.3141/2143-19. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- ^ "Bringing Carsharing to your Community" (PDF). City Car Share. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ https://groups.yahoo.com/group/WorldCarShare/files/%20Research%2C%20resources/ (registration required)
- ^ Pisani, Joseph (4 December 2009). "Car Sharing Takes Off". CNBC. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Shaheen, Susan A.; Cohen, Adam P.; Roberts, J. Darious (2005). "Carsharing in North America: Market Growth, Current Developments, and Future Potential". Transportation Research Record. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Toothman, Jessika (16 May 2008). "How Car Sharing Works". howstuffworks. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Weston, Liz Pulliam (2009). "Should You Share a Car?". MSN Money. Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ "The CarSharing Handbook (Part 1)". Rain Magazine. Archived from the original on 20 July 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Shaheen, Susan; Sperling, Daniel; Wagner, Conrad (1998). "Carsharing in Europe and North America: Past, Present and Future" (PDF). 52 (3). Transportation Quarterly: 35–52. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Young, Robin (19 July 1977). "Experiment in car-sharing". The Times. p. 2.
- ^ The Times, 15 February 1978, p. 12
- ^ Shaheen, Susan; Sperling, Daniel; Wagner, Conrad (September 1999). "A Short History of Carsharing in the 90's". Journal of World Transport Policy & Practice. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Loveday, Eric (20 July 2011). "Hertz on Demand is a bit like ZipCar without membership fees". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ a b Belson, Ken (10 September 2010). "Car Sharing: Ownership by the Hour". New York Times. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ "Wheels when you need them". The Economist. 2 September 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ "The connected car". The Economist. 4 June 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Dhingra, Chhavi; Stanich, Rebecca (28 May 2013). "Car-Sharing Picking Up Speed in the Developing World". Sustainable Cities Collective. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Green, Caryn (16 September 2009). "Car-Sharing – Good for the Environment and the Budget". Organic Green and Natural. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Prettenhaler, Franz E.; Steininger, Karl W. (March 1999). "From Ownership to Service Use Lifestyle: The Potential of Car Sharing". Ecological Economics. 28 (3): 443–453. doi:10.1016/S0921-8009(98)00109-8. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ English, Andrew (1 October 2009). "Tokyo Motor Show: Phiaro". The Telegraph. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Bartsche, Alina (9 October 2012). "How to Cut Costs Through Carsharing". CFO Insight. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- ^ Lieber, Ron (April 22, 2011). "Consider the Worst Case With Zipcar". The New York Times.
- Carsharing Association
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