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Mighty mods show car insurance



QUESTION: I've been told that the F head block can be used in place of the L head with some mods. Is this true?

ANSWER 1: The F-head is a different animal than the L-head. By most accounts the F-head won't fit in a low-hood flat fender without cutting a hole in the hood or putting on a body lift.

ANSWER 2: Using a carburetor from an early Ford Falcon (144cid engine) will provide clearance for the hood to close without cutting a hole in it. A low profile air cleaner is required though.



QUESTION: Where can I get replacement "horsehair" for around my radiator?

ANSWER: Matching material is not available from any source. I searched exhaustively during my restoration and came up with nothing. Beachwood Canvas sells some material that works and is the right color but isn't even close to the original appearance.



QUESTION: How do I get the head off my L-134?

ANSWER: Not sure on an L-head, but on an F-head there is a bolt under where the carb mounts which is the last (hidden head bolt) I couldn't figure out why the head on mine wouldn't come off until I noticed it.

I had to replace a couple head gaskets on my flathead when I had it in my jeep. You just have to pry on it with a pry bar or e screwdriver. They come off hard the first time get easier after that especially after the 2nd or 3rd. I finally figured out my prolem, why I was blowing head gaskets. When you go to put the studs back in make sure you put all of the studs in without nuts on them or do it even better way if you have the money and replace all of the studs and nuts. The problem I was having was that some of the nuts were frozen on the studs and the stud would bottom out in its threaded hole and the nut wouldn't go any further because it was frozen thus giving a false torque. What I did because I was in school and short on money is found the problem studs and replaced them with grade 8 bolts of the proper length and never had any problems after that.



QUESTION 1: What was the color of the engine and engine parts on the early jps?

ANSWER 1: The chassis, engine, air cleaner were all glossy black. They were not the flat black (or satin black) that other manufacturer's used. [Todd Paisley CJML]

QUESTION 2: Did this continue throught the fiftys with all jeeps (L and F head) or was it model specific i.e. CJ2A? (I've got a '54 3B and was just wondering).

ANSWER 2: I don't have any authoritative information on original undercarriage and engine parts paint on CJ-3B's, but I haven't seen much that would contradict the theory that it was generally glossy black. [Derek Redmond - CJML]



QUESTION: Does anyone know some slight modifications that may have been done at the dealership for more power?

ANSWER: The factory offered a high compression (7.0 vs. 6.4) cylinder head for high altitudes. That option could have been installed either at the factory or by a dealer. I don't know the horsepower boost offhand, nor how much to shave off a standard head to obtain the 7.0 compression ratio.

It's quite easy to calculate how much the head has to be shaved of or the block decked. Though caution has to taken to valve/head clearance. There are a lot of ways to check that to before working with the head. I do not know the clearence distance so.... Some percents of horsepower can be achived by smoothing the manifold intake ways and same thing in the block. Had been a lot more easy if you had modern engine with valves-in the head to work on.

The effect of the bored-out block is negligible, I can assure you. With the first rebuild of my L-head- it was sent out to one of those big engine rebuilders- came back with a tag on it, "Power-Pac". I didn't realize the implications until I tore into it, years later: .062" oversize (.022 over suggested max.). This last go around, I re-sleeved back to standard. And I have to tell you, *I* don't notice any difference.

I agree that the effect of any overbore would be negligible, if it was even noticeable. But what I did say is true. That it is the *easiest and safest* way to increase compression. Period. No representations that it would result in any real World or even theoretical power gains.

One more interesting (to me, anyway) thing is that an excessive overbore like yours probably decreased your power, rather than increased it. The weak link in any overbore scenario is the "no man's land" between cylinders where, in essence, twice the amount of material is being removed (the amount of the overbore on each side of that usually narrow to start with area).

Even though you can get nice, neat round holes and you can get the pistons to seal statically, once the block is up to operating temperature and the pistons are moving at whatever speed 4000 or 5000 rpm translates into, the thin wall between cylinders would deflect to the point where the rings couldn't seal the compression into the combustion chambers because the cylinders were no longer round.

A 283 overbored .060 (292) would always make more power than the same block overbored .125 (301). So we always had a surprise for the folks who engineered by the motto: "if some is good, more is better and too much must be just enough" . Especially considering you had to carry a certain weight for each inch of displacement.

There are also other ways to lose power by increasing your compression depending on how you do it. One way would be to dome the piston to the point where the sparkplug would ignite only the fuel on it's side of the mountainous dome and not propagate across to the other side, leaving that amount of fuel unburned and having contributed nothing to power. Another would be to increase the compression to the point where you had to back the ignition timing off to prevent detonation with the available fuel.

Even the aforementioned smoothing and polishing might cause a loss in power. Some turbulence in the intake charge is necessary to keep the fuel molecules suspended in the air intake. If none is present the heavier (than air) fuel has a tendency to fall out of the air stream and pool or puddle in low areas in the intake runners.

Matching intake manifolds to heads, once thought to be the greatest advance since sliced bread, can be overdone as it has been know for a long time now that appropriate mismatching is desirable, even necessary to create a "reversion dam" to prevent the intake charge from being pushed back out by exhaust gases in engines with long overlap cams.

Jeff Polidoro - CJML



QUESTION: By lightening the crank, wouldn' t it also result in a reciprocal loss, if minimal, of low end torque?

ANSWER: No, torque is a function of the length of the moment arm, in this case the stroke of the engine, not the weight of the moment arm. Lighter is always better, whether it's crank, pistons, valves, block, you name it. The only possible exception might be the mass of the flywheel. There are 2 opinions but I favor the lighter ones and the resulting responsiveness.

Jeff Polidoro - CJML



QESTION: My engine has been rebuilt, what can I do to pre-lubricate it prior to starting it?

ANSWER I appreciate not every owner will have a spare oil pump but for those who do have access to one here is a tip.

Temporarily install an oil pump that has had the teeth machined [or filed] off the driven gear. Removing the teeth will allow the pump to spin when driven by an electric drill via a shaft inserted in the distributor hole. The shaft can be gutted from an old distributor or made from metal bar simulating the oil pump drive tang. It doesn't even have to be a good condition oil pump as we are not concerned about maintaining flow/pressure once the engine is warmed up and revving its heart out. Once the teeth are removed it doesn't matter if it is a 1933 or 1960 oil pump. Just make sure it is clean inside and out with no debris likely to be dislodged. Use an old gasket or make a temp one from thick paper and bolt the old pump up. If worried about a slight oil leak just wrap a rag around the pump, it is a temporary installation after all. Works a treat for engines that have been sitting a long time since rebuild or since the last startup.

Paint this priming pump a distinctive colour and mark it so it can not be mistaken for a proper oil pump when bolted to the block.

This is the most effective method of priming oil into the engine through the oil passages it is meant to flow through. It can also be used to verify flow into the bypass oil filter, oil out of the timing gear jet [with timing cover removed], flow past each main bearing and rod cap [with the sump removed and oil fed to pump via hose dipped in oil bottle, flow to valve gear of F134/161 as well as to verify the oil gauge or idiot light works.

L134 Ted - WT



QUESTION: Does anyone have knowledge or opinion on Slick 50 and some of these other oil additives I am thinkin' about putting one or another in my 2A to enhance engine life?

ANSWER 1: [From various areas of opinion]: One of the best products I've used. Highly recommended.

ANSWER 2: My opinion, based upon nothing, is that the best thing you can do is run a quality oil and changed at reasonable intervals. The definition of 'quality oil' and 'reasonable intervals' are left to the reader. Everything that I've seen suggests that it is almost impossible to execute a well designed experiment to determine what these are given the variability and time involved. Dyno juice has been run for years and there's plenty of older rigs with well over 100k on them. My Civic (see the .sig below) has been completely abused all it's life (I run Castrol GTX and change it when I get around to it) and continues to run very well. There are some compelling reasons to run synthetics, however you can change to oil twice as often for the money with petrol oil.

As for the additives, et al. My basic take is that anyone who uses marketing techniques composed of outrageous 'get quick rich' type claims and sensational video footage in the auto part super stores are looking for suckers. If their results are that night-and-day of a difference I'd fully expect Castrol, Mobile, etc to be on board not to mention GM, Ford, BMW, Mercedes, adnosium. Believing that to not be the case I've concluded that it's a smoke screen. It probably won't hurt but I'd be absolutely blown away if you could convince me that you've found it to be of any help.

My motorcycle has one known flaw in that the top end oiling is a bit weak and thus the oil thread has been beaten into the ground on that mail list. We've even a few petroleum chemists. Being a high performance engine I run synthetics and change the oil frequently, the best technique I know. All that being said, there are differences in oil and some of the learned members of that list do use a particular zinc based (I think) additive to help the oil designed for cars function better in the bike (where the engine and tranny use the same oil) instead of paying through the nose $5+ a quart for Honda Motorcycle oil.

In short: spend the money on another filter and change your oil more often.

ANSWER 3: Ford, GM, BMW, Castrol, etc., etc., (my opinion) are not going to jump on the band wagon for a great new product that last hundreds of thousands of miles and makes your engine last forever. They WANT you to buy products and parts FREQUENTLY. That's big money. Other than that I think you hit it on the head. I've used additives and synthetics and could tell no difference, except in the wallet.

ANSWER 4: The good one I heard was about STP. A mechanic I worked with told me that he had seen what it did: ran down the side of the filler tube, the pan, and lay in a puddle in the bottom.

ANSWER 5: I can't tell you about Slick 50 additives but, for what it's worth, I am not a believer in the additives. I do however, believe in the virtues of synthetic oil. I use it almost exclusively in all my IC engines. One warning though. If your engine already uses oil, don't switch to synthetics. Also, you can't break an engine in with synthetic oil. My Ford (sorry, I got a good deal) F 150 is living proof after 120,000 and it still does not use any oil to speak of.

ANSWER 6: Slick 50. No way it's going to increase your power. So folks swear by it, others say it's a waste of money. I've put it my Geo Metro and after 120,000 miles it's still running fine. Due to Slick 50? Dunno.

Want more horsepower? JC Whitney has a Solex replacement carb. Although I hesitate to say it will give you more HP, it can make for smoother running and starting. You can throw on a turbocharger (from a Ford 2.3L) but you must modify your exhaust manifold. The L-head problem is that it's a poor breather. Of course you could always throw in a V-6.

ANSWER 7: My opinion is that I would not use these additives if I do not know the history of the engine. Oil 50 or so years ago was poor and had little if any detergents in it. Over the years the grades of oil have improved greatly. What I am trying to say I would not use these because of their detergents, years ago there may had been deposits of dirt left in there and if you use modern oil with the best cleaning power you could break some of the deposits loose and could block up oil passages thus leading to premature engine failure by under lubrication. This is especially true about synthetic oils. If you know the history of the engine and it has been rebuilt then by all means use these additives if you feel so incline.

ANSWER 8: Save your money and time and stick to the important stuff like regular oil & filter changes, chassis lube, coolant and brake fluid flush, keeping trans, xfer, and knuckle lube topped off. And you should oil the wick on the distributor and keep some oil in the bottom of the air cleaner. If you really want your flathead to last forever you can drop the oil pan every year and wipe out the mud with a rag.

Plenty of work to do to keep a 2a in top shape without having to run voodoo chemicals through it.

ANSWER 9: I've used Tufoil in my old cars for years. It really seems to make things smoother and quieter. Added with each ol change. avail at auto parts store or call Fluoramics 800-922-0075

ANSWER 10: I'm not sure about Slick 50, but if you want the same thing much cheaper (ten bucks) use the Fram Double Duty that has the teflon in it. As for oil, when I lived up by the artic circle I left a bottle of Penzoil 10-30 and a bottle of Mobil 1, 5-50 out overnight. In the morning with temperature at around 50 below, the Penzoil was a solid block, but the Mobil 1 poured with no problem. Those of us that ran synthetics in our ATV's were the only ones running when the weather really got cold. My 85 Nissan with 114K miles burns no oil ever. I started using Mobil 1 in it after about 12K miles. I run nothing but Mobile 1 in my six autos ranging from 1947 to 1997, the four banger in my rice rocket to the fuel injected 460 in my motor home. It stays "thicker" when it's hot and "thinner" when it's cold. Up here they even sell Mobil 1, 0 weight.



QUESTION: What was the advantage of the F Head over the L Head? Why did they change engines on the 3B?

ANSWER: Horsepower. Raw, unadulterated, snap-your-head-back horsepower. A screamin' 72 of 'em. Primarily at higher RPM. The F-head design allows the cylinders to fill more rapidly with fuel-air mixture which improves the top end.



QUESTION: How can I remove and replace my starter bushing [in the bell housing]?

ANSWER: There are several ways to skin the same cat. I know two, Snap On makes a 14 piece puller set, basically it is a slide hammer. It has a attachment that will fit inside bushing and tighten against the sides. you then just slide hammer. The other is to twist a bolt or easy-out into bushing. hold the bolt with pliers then tap bushing out with hammer. It is a tight fit may take some time. Oh yeah, if the bushing has no back, when the bolt is screwed all the way and begins to strike bellhousing, the bushing will be forced out.

It's really easy to get out. Sometimes there is a hole behind it (in the bell housing), in which case you can push it out using a bronze drift. If there's no hole you can extract it by using a small sliding hammer or bush extractor. Once it is out you then have the OD measurement and the shaft on the starter will give you the ID measurement. Putting it in: A good auto sparky will either find you the correct bronze bush or he will turn one up for you. Be sure that you soak the bronze bush for 24 hours in about 30 grade oil, then carefully reinsert it using a bronze drift. Now slide your starter in. If your earthing is good, your starter is good and the new bush doesn't allow any sideways "lash", the little girl will start right up.



QUESTION: Do these little jeep engines lack oil when they idle.

ANSWER: No. There is documented evidence of Jeep engines being used as stationary engines in power plants, as saw mill motors, to drive household generators (thousands of them in the Australian Outback cattle stations), boat motors and I could go on and on. *Most * of these engines spend countless hours idling. Furthermore, the difference between idling pressure and running pressure (in normal use - not climbing mountains or getting over sand dunes) is not very great. Hydraulic mechanics tells any fool that. If you would like to run Taz for long periods at idle - do so. The only thing that may be better for him is to turn the idle screw up so he idles at about 800rpm. Not for the oil flow but for good coolant flow and correct engine temp control by ensuring that the coolant flows and the fan blows.



QUESTION: Why might I consider mounting a spin-on oil filter in place of my stock filter?

ANSWER: The original oil filter will starve the main bearing and first rod bearing at idle will the oil pressure drops low. I have designed a system that uses a spin on filter and a flow control valve to regulate the flow at idle. [Answer in progress 01-Feb-99]



QUESTION: Is my stock canister oil filter sufficient?

ANSWER: I've used (and continue to use) canister type oil filters in some of the dustiest and sandiest country you'll ever wish to see. Never had a problem. I drive (and escort) MB's, GPW's, CJ2A's, CJ3B's over hot, arid and remote country, in trips that can take the convoy up to three weeks and cover 5000 miles. Never a problem. I've used a roll of toilet paper as a filter when I've been stuck without the cartridge. Never a problem. I only change the oil every 2500 miles in that type of driving and in normal driving I change oil at about 5000 miles. Never burnt a bearing or cooked a crankshaft. Provided the oil galleries are clean and the oil is a good product, the physics of hydraulic mechanics will tell you that the oil pressure will be constant throughout the whole flow area. As you probably know, the canister system was used in numerous vehicles (Chrysler, GM, and trucks) way up to the end of the 60's. Never heard of a starvation problem. Early Landcruisers (with the copy of the Chev 6 engine in them). I'm talking about FJ40's and earlier, had canister oil filters. No problems that I heard of. Upon reflection, I do know of someone who had an oil feed problem (now that I recall) but he was stupid and had used Silastic as a gasket sealer and the stuff was stuck in the galleries. But that shouldn't count.



QUESTION: How can low oil pressure effect bearings?

ANSWER: The low oil pressure situation is dependant on two major things: 1) How old the engine bearing and oil pump are. The older, the lower the pressure the pump will produce at idle. At idle the oil going to the front main bearing is siphoned off to the oil filter, the front rod bearing, and the timing gear spray nozzle. 2) If the spray nozzle to the timing gear is the larger of two sizes you are risking burning the rod bearing. I don't remember the diameter or the hole in the spray nozzle but it is listed in the Willys repair manual that we have. It says in the book that if the front rod bearing is burning up the replace the spray nozzle with the smaller diameter.

The Willys place I purchase parts from said that they remove the original filters and change the oil when it gets cloudy looking to prevent a chance of burning the rod bearing.



QUESTION 1: I heard the 2A had an option handcrank. Is that true?

ANSWER 1: It was a two piece handle and shaft with adapter on the crankshaft end... Do you have the special nut on the end of your crankshaft ? You know what it looks like.... Now for the other item I know .. Continental made the engines for the MB, AND Allis Chalmers tractors back in those days... I am told that an Old Tractor graveyard that has Allis Chalmers tractors will probably have the crank and Nut that goes on the crank shaft of the engine.... check it out.

QUESTION 2: Does anyone know of a good source for hand crank starters and/or other nifty original options for CJ-2As.

ANSWER 2: [Answer in progress 01-Feb-99]



QUESTION: My motor stalled after running rough. The oil pressure was high and when I checked the dipstick, it was full of crud. What could this mean?

My suggestions: After it sits for a while (measured in hours) the oil and water emulsion should separate. When you drain the oil, you should get both water and oil out. Pulling the head is relatively easy on an old Jeep (as opposed to the modern engines I sometimes find myself struggling with). A new head gasket is about $15 - $20 (as opposed to the complete gasket set I am awaiting from NAPA for an Isuzu Trooper 4 cyl Diesel for $185!).

This will be OK as long as the head studs don't break off. I remember trying to take the flat head off of my L-134. I broke 4 of the studs.

Soak the nuts good and brush off any dirt and grime from the threads. If you do break some, use a stud puller after you gert the head off. I was able to remove 3 of my broken studs without drilling. If you are going to wait for any length of time to pull the head, remove the spark plugs and poor a sizable amount of oil down each cylinder. This is much harder to do on a flat head because the spark plug does not sit directly over the cylender. Cover the top of the engine with an old towel, leave the plugs out and crank the engine over a few times by hand. This will make for an oily rag but it should help keep any water from rusting up the cylinders.

My first attempt would be to confirm that it is just water in the oil, not any metal flakes; then pull the head to see if that is the source of the water (pray that it is, 'cause the other possibility is a cracked block); then put on a new headgasket and replace the head; fill it with cheap oil and start it up. This whole fix shouldn't take more than two or three hours. It will either run OK (in which case you are back on the road), or other problems will become evident.

Don't run the engine more than a few minutes with the cheap oil. Not that running on cheap oil is a problem bu,t you need to change it out to remove the water and "mud" from the system. I have seen it take 2 oil changes to get that junk out of an engine. Even them you will traces of the "mud" around the dip stick for a few weeks.

If you are in the mood to know more, pull the oil pan an check the rod and crank bearings by dropping one cap at a time. They would be the most likely place to find damage due to oil starvation. If they look damaged, you can change the bearings from underneath without pulling engine. You could still be back on the road with a day two of work and less than $100.



QUESTION: I had heard this before: that 134 L-heads had been sold to be used on various pieces of field equipment; pumps, generators, etc. Now, a notice on a BB discussion about their use on welders, has me wondering. I suppose that it would have been impossible for the Willys plant to track which engines were sold as replacements in a vehicle and which weren't - unless the orders were sizable, and their destinations known. Are any of these suitable for a non-original engine jeep restoration job? Do they have the "Willys"-, or some other head? Were they taken right off the line, with the same sequential serial numbers? In short, what is known about them? [Cary Reed - CJML]





QUESTION: I am rebuilding an L-134. Should I go with cast or forged pistons? Prices?

ANSWER: The cast pistons will work fine as long as you keep it timed correctly and don't try to hot rod it. I've never seen a cast piston break under ordinary driving conditions.

There is really no need to run the more expensive forged pistons in a stock motor, and maybe some reasons not to. The forged pistons are stronger and can put up with a little more detonation and are great for a high horsepower rebuild. As for a stock engine, the installation of forged pistons requires the holes to be bored out a little larger than they would be for cast pistons (forged pistons expand more) this causes more piston slap on cold startups and requires a little more care on your part to warm engine up completely before hot rodding it. Both styles will work well, just consider how you will be using your engine and keep costs in mind.

Call Carl Walck's Four Wheel Drive. 610-852-3110. Great prices and shipping time. My price list from him has .020 F-134 pistons at $26.31. Ring set is $29.46.



QUESTION: How can I remove a broken stud [in the engine]?

ANSWER: I broke off an exhaust manifold stud leaving a piece in the block. It was the rear stud, about 1" from the firewall. I drilled a hole in it and used a screw extractor. BAD RESULTS! It broke also, leaving tool steel in the hole. About $75 worth of carbide drill bits later, I inserted a helicoil and a new stud.

I would recommend just drilling the stud out and inserting the helicoil, skipping the screw extractor and carbide bits. I hope your experience is more pleasant (and cheaper).

The thing that I hope everyone out there learned from this is that screw extractors don't.

If you are lucky enough to be the one that broke off the stud, then you should have some idea about how much torque was required to do it. If you were really leaning on it, or it was actually getting TIGHTER as you unscrewed, keep that in mind as you reach for the screw extractor. Remember the extractor will have to apply MORE torque than you did when you broke it. That is rarely possible.

If it broke because you bent it, or because you were trying to straighten it, that's different, and an E-Z out has a chance. I, too spent $75.00 in carbide removing a screw extractor. Once the extractor is out, the stud removal goes pretty easy. (You know the drill...).

0. Grind the broken stud flat and square if possible.
1. Center punch the broken stud in the exact center.
2. Pilot drill the broken stud clear through.
3. Follow with the correct size tap drill. (Left hand if you have it)
4. Tap with a 2 flute plug tap.
5. Finish with a bottom tap.

Use lots of cutting fluid, or motor oil while drilling. Go slow, and stay square.

Another (more time consuming) option is to drill the stud with a small enough bit that you don't hit the block or threads. Take a die grinder with a skinny side cutting bit, and carefully grind away the stud from the inside, when you get to the threads, peel it out with a sharp pointed tool (I used the little pointy tools that comes with those small screwdriver sets). Somebody on the list suggested this a while ago and I had a chance to try it out - it worked very well, barely knicked the threads and it took about 2 hours.

Left hand drill bits are worth the investment in this case. You use them in reverse and a lot of the time they will catch and back the broken bolt/stud out for you. Soak the broken stud a couple a days w/ PB Blaster or some other penetrant, then start with the smallest left hand drill. Keep increasing in size until the bolt grabs and screws out or until you'v e almost exposed the threads. Then you have a choice, either gently try an E-Z out or go ahead and overdrill and put in a heli coil. My own experience has been that 60 to 75 % of the time the left hand drill bits grab and back the bolt out.

A couple of years ago I found a local guy that had a "disintegrater" tool. For $50.00 (less than we can spend on broken tools) he removed the debris and supplied a new stud.

Here are a couple of tips I've learned about broken studs that might help:

1) When using easy-outs, grind a groove around the shank just below where the wrench grabs it. The depth of the groove is trial and error. You are making a safety valve, so to speak, so the easy-out will break there first, leaving some material to grip to pull it out.

2) Use a two-handed tap wrench if there is room. This keeps you from applying any side load, which is often what breaks the easy-out. I realize this might not always be possible, like up next to the firewall. In that situation, I've used various scraps of wood, etc. to rest the easy-out against, to prevent side-load.

Years ago, I remember reading of a certain type of acid that only attacked a certain component in the steel in easy-outs and taps. It supposedly left the surrounding metal alone.

[When removing my stuck stud] I opted for some reverse cut bits by Helicoil, sort of a drill bit and EZout combination. Sixty bucks for 4 of the bits. The EZout part didn't work too well, but the bit cut the broken stud like it was butter. I wound up drilling out the stud and retapping the hole, worked like a charm.

I took the head off my 1947 L Head, and broke 5 bolts in the process. Not sure what to do now, (wanted to get it going again is used for daily transportation to work). I started digging through my pile of small block Chevy parts, and found that the outside 4 Head bolts on a small block are an exact match for the L Head bolts (minus the nut on top that rusts on). So after cleaning out the threads in the block and applying a little Teflon sealer to the threads the head was back on and she was running again. Didn't have enough bolts to replace all the head bolts but will at a later time. I feel these are a superior bolt. Have taken heads off dozens of Chevys never broke one bolt.

Here's something that worked pretty well for me for taking out a broken EZ-Out. I put some carbide dental drilling tips I bought at a garage sale in my Dremel tool. Used lots of WD-40 and a few tips but they cut very precisely. The best way to get the EZ-Out out is to cut away at the soft metal of the original stud.



QUESTION: Why do L-Head studs break so easily?

ANSWER: Here are some reasons I believe that the L-head bolts break:

1. Corrosion- Far less was known about metallurgy in 1947. The quality of the steel in a modern bolt is far superior. Modern machine bolts are less susceptible to corrosion.

2. Stress- With V-8 the only time a head bolt is retorqued is when the valve cover is removed and usually not even then. With the L-head, the bolts are on top of the head and fully exposed. I know my dad used to make a ritual of retightening the bolts on the top of the engine every spring (Just in case one came loose). And if you blew a head gasket the first thing to try was retightening the bolts.

Do to stretch/stress, it is a good idea to change the bolts at least every other time you replace the head gasket. Since this usually isn't practical it usually isn't done. If the head bolts are grade 5 and you replace them with grade 8 I believe there are some things to consider. Unfortunately my knowledge of shear strength and such is very limited so I'm hoping someone else will help with that. I do believe that a grade 8 bolt is more likely to distort the block threads when torqued than a grade 5.

If the original bolts where grade 8 then I see no reason to not use upgraded bolts.



QUESTION: How do you tell the difference between a Buick V6 225 and a 231?


*If the exhaust manifold on the driver's side exits and slopes forward then it is a 225 (or at least a 225 ex. manifold). This slope was to get around the steering mechanism in the cj5 and jeepster.

*If the exhaust manifolds exit as full size tubes (the size of normal headers) and are a welded assembly they are 225 exh. manifolds. If they are cast and appear flat (so as to give more clearance, i.e. they sit closer to the side of the engine) they are 231 manifolds. I believe all years of exh. manifolds, 225231, are interchangeable.

*If the intake manifold is stamped 1-6-5-4-3-2 it is an odd-fire.

*If you see dauntless stickers it is a 225.

*If you see oil bath air cleaner it is a 225.

*After mid 1977 all 231's were even fire, before that from 1974 the 231's were odd-fire. So if you have the year of the engine that might help you determine what it is.

* Both of my 225's have the "smog tubes" and my OF 231 (1975) takes big plugs.

* My 68 CJ is definitely original and the smog tubes in the heads are NOT regular pipe thread they are 1/4 in size but have 1/2 pipe thread, very coarse. It also has large plugs.

About the flywheels: I have seen 2 flywheels on 225 v6's. the heavy one (55 lb.) was stock on manual transmission 225's. The lighter one is from 225's with the turbo-hydromatic transmission. The heavy flywheel is preferred for several reasons including sustaining torque at low rpm's (rockcrawling requirement).


Quick Reference for Identification: Buick/Kaiser Jeep Odd-fire 225


225 V-6 Block casting numbers:





991503 (or 981503, the two 9's may be a typo, still researching this.)

From my present info, these are all the 225 v-6 block casting numbers.

Intake casting numbers:

1 barrel : 1381552

2 barrel : 1378704

- there may be others...

225 v-6 engine id codes: Buick special 64-67 (1 and 2 barrel)

1964 = KH [between branches of right exhaust manifold]

1965 = LH [engine number on the right front face of the crankcase, just below cylinder head] 1966 = MH [as '65 above] 1967 = NH [as '65 above]...so the codes are either on the side or front of the block just under the cylinder head. (I have heard rumors of a few engines produced in '63).

All are listed as 9.0-1 comp. ratio. The engine codes seem to indicate that the first letter is the engine year, while the second letter is the comp ratio (9.0-1). The two letters together identify this engine as a 225 V-6, as the same year letter was used by Buick for all engine types '64-'71 (v-6, v-8) but the second comp ratio code letter varied between different engine types with the same comp ratio (i.e., a '64 V-6 comp ratio 9.0-1 is a"KH", while a '64 300 V-8 comp ratio 9.0-1 is a "KL").

Sometime '65 to '67, Kaiser Jeep bought the V-6 from Buick. This could have been due to the success of the 'Rover Defender using the earlier Buick "Fireball" 198 V-6, as Willys Jeep had been known to be aggressive in export sales, and I believe it was Kaiser's intent to carry on this sales policy.

From "Service Manual Jeep Universal Series"

"The engine code number shown in Fig A-4 is provided to identify the Dauntless V6-225 engine. The meaning of the coded letters and numbers that are stamped on the right front face of the crankcase, just below the rocker arm cover, between exhaust manifold ports, is given below:

Letter to designate market: M-Military, E-Export, D-Domestic

Letter to designate year Built: N-1967, P-1968, R-1969, S-1970, T-1971

Letter to designate Engine Compression Ratio: H-V6-225 9.0 to 1 C.R.

(2bbl carb) Y-V6-225 9.0 to 1 Marine (Low Profile) (2 bbl carb)

Z-V6-225 9.0 to 1 Marine (High Profile) 2bbl carb K V6-225 7.6 to 1

(2bbl carb) L V6-225 7.4 to 1 (2bbl carb)

The next three numbers are then the day of the year noted in the second position.""

In 1965, some Jeep V-6's are listed as coded "KLH" (and maybe '64 or '66 engines as well, still trying to research this).

Sometime '71 to '74 Buick bought the 225 V-6 back from AMC Jeep and rebored to 231 cu in. The engine stayed odd-fire until sometime in early or mid '77, when the engine was changed to even-fire by revising the crank throws (and other modifications). The odd-fire V-6 was gone forever.

I have no info of Buick using the "new" V-6 in '74; first use seems to be in the '75 models. I haven't seen any info that shows these engines in production for '72, '73, or '74 (of any firing order or displacement). All Buick 231 block casting numbers from my info begin with the numbers 124, 125, 126, or 255.

There are after-market intake manifolds available for the 225 V-6. Two are the Weiand four barrel intake part #7541 and the Offenhauser 360. Even-fire 231 intakes have been said to work if you use a '78 or older intake gasket. Be advised that a four barrel upgrade may cost some low-end horsepower. Engine parts are said to be available from Kenne-Bell and Kanton Auto Parts, among others. Information on both companies is available via the Internet.



QUESTION: Does anyone have the casting numbers for the Buick V6 block? I received additional info about the V6, it stated that the V6 was first mfg. in '62 and '63 as a 198 CID and that the bellhousing had rounded bolt pattern and the clutch was recessed in the flywheel. Does anyone have any supporting info?

ANSWER: I used to have one of these in my 2A for a number of years. The 198 will actually bolt directly to the T-90 but it sits to far back so you must use the adapter. You also must use the 225 complete oil pump. The relief valve is different and will pop the filter like a balloon. You really don't want this engine as it is really difficult to get parts for.

The 225 cylinder bore size standard is 3 3/4". The 198 is 3 5/8". So unless the 198 cylinder has been bored 125 thousanths oversize (ye gads! is my math right? 3.750-3.625=.125) then it must follow that a cylinder that measures that much less than 3 3/4" can't be a 225. For further reference, bore on a 231 is 3.800", bore on the late '70's 196 is 3 1/2" AND i have block casting numbers on the 196 beginning with 125 or 126 listed (like the 231) but this part we already covered. I believe the 198 had a 6 digit ID number or two stamped in the crankcase, probally in the traditional places just under front/side head mount areas. So measure the cylinder, that's the ticket! And find any stamped numbers.

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QUESTION: My jp sat in some weeds for about 10 years before I got it. It runs like a top but the gas tank had trash in it. I cleaned it out and now no fuel will come out of the tank. I disconnected the fuel line from the tank and slid a wire in the tank, but it would only go about an inch. Is there any way to fix it with out having to replace the tank?

ANSWER: I have found that a few pounds of air pressure will clean out

most of the gunk. You may have to have the tank professionally

cleaned at a radiator shop. Cost is about $30.

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QUESTION: I need to replace the manifold gasket, the exhaust to manifold donut and the carb to manifold gasket. I remember my grandfather soaking a gasket in hot water for a couple hours and then letting it dry for a few days and reusing it. Anyone ever try this?




QUESTION: In the past, I remember some conversation on replacing the Willys frame with a Chevy or other frame. I want to upgrade my stock rear end, front suspension and brakes. It might be more efficient and cost effective to put my Wagon body on a different frame. I know this is treason to some of you, sorry. Any comments? Jerry Stoper (AR) 47 Wagon.

ANSWER: I'm doing quite a few mods myself and I've chosen to keep the frame. It was simply easier for me to acquire the wee bits separately and modify things as needed rather than trying to find arig where everything would be the same ballpark size and move the body mounts (minimum) or whatever else (shorten/lengthen frame, etc). Finding a rig that has the options you want that also fits might be a challenge, though it's been done I'm sure. Mostly I suppose I was limiting myself because I didn't have the cash to buy a donor vehicle nor did I want it lying around long. I'd also add that though I'm going with a Chevy power-plant/tranny I wanted Dana axles rather than GM Corporate (C-clip design) which further limits the options.

The only changes I'll be making to my frame (so far) that I can think of are: Motor mounts Spring hangers Shock mounts (probably, not sure yet)Tranny/xfer crossmember (to include front end of anti-wrap bar)

This is with these mods (among others):

D44 front (shortened, from a Chevy)

D60 rear (shortened, from a Ford)

Chevy V8

SM420 tranny

SOA w/ new springs and anti-wrap

If you were going to use the complete chassis as is it would make sense. If you're doing other mods then I'd keep your frame (assuming it's solid) and make the changes you need (which shouldn't be too many).

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QUESTION: Does anybody know where I could find a voltage gauge for my 6v system? There are lots of them for 12v systems.

ANSWER: Try NAPA, they have a large selection in their catalog. If they don't have one, try a farm supply house. Tractors are often 6V.


QUESTION: Does anyone know the original ring color of CJ2A gauges? Were they chromed or painted?

ANSWER: Gloss Black.

Todd Paisley - CJML



QUESTION: If I change from 6V to 12V, do I need different gauges? Do I need a different fuel gauge sending unit?

ANSWER: The gauges will all work except for the fuel gauge. The sending unit in the tank doesn't care, but you either need a new 12V fuel gauge or a 12-6 volt converter for the existing gauge.

Same here. Mine works fine with 12V just as it did with 6V (i.e., still to damned jumpy and sensitive to vibration). I think it might be more important to change the gauge or adapt it if it has a light in it. In my 2A, that's not a problem. All I had to do was to replace the one hooded dash light with an equivalent 12V bulb.

I changed to twelve volt and never messed with the gauges and it still works fine.

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QUESTION: What were the original seat covers made of 2As? Vinyl or canvass?

ANSWER: It was an oilcloth type material, typical of its day, neither canvas nor vinyl. Most reproductions use vinyl, which is closer than canvas.

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QUESTION: My jp has enlarged spring pivot points. What should I do?

ANSWER 1: My experience is as a machinist, not a welder. With that in mind, two ways. One, get the centerline measurements off of a good bracket, and lay out and center-punch your pilot for the re-drill. Or two, I'm sure a welder has a trick or two up his sleeve, like using a rod of non-ferrous material to clamp in place and weld around.

The location is not critical: if you get it within an eighth of an inch, I would think it would be fine. More important would be that it is square to the frame. (If you have a drill press, drill yourself a drill jig - a block drilled through straight,so you can clamp it to the bracket and drill straight.)

ANSWER 2: Get out your oxy. Cut off the shackle brackets. Finish the job with a good grinder. Buy new shackle brackets. Re-weld them back on. Do it with an arc welder.



QUESTION: Can anybody tell me of any place I can get cheap but good stock wrangler springs. I want to put them on my 47 CJ 2A?

ANSWER: I would suggest checking with a 4X4 shop that installs aftermarket springs. Most of the shops around here (Denver) have a pile of stock springs that were replaced with lift springs. You should be able to get them cheap. I have purchased a new set of 1" lift spring for a 49 CJ3A by Softride for $245 plus shipping.

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QUESTION: Any advise on using a tierod steering rod setup on a 46 cj? I have it in my mind to use a knuckle to knuckle rod and separate steering rod, either with the stock steering or a Saginaw conversion. The only major problem seems to be that the tie rod and steering rod are going to have to share a common bolt hole on the knuckle. My stock tie rods were all trashed so I have to replace it anyway. Anybody done this?

ANSWER: You need a tie rod that goes from knuckle to knuckle. The drag link will connect from the steering box (or bell crank) to the right side knuckle. The most common way is to use a ride side tie rod end that has a hole in it, so it actually connects to the tie rod end not the knuckle. AA sells this tie rod end but it is actually a factory piece, it was used on the 60's Commandos. The better way, at least I think so, is to use a ride side knuckle from a dana 25/27 from a truck or wagon. These have two holes in the knuckle, one for the tie rod and one for the drag link. Even the new style wagons up until '71 I think used the d27 front axle with this knuckle, not to hard to find in a scrap yard. This is the way all of the CJ's from '72 on up were set up with the dana 30.

With the size tires you're planning, go with Saginaw steering. Also I'd go to 8" wheels to keep the tires from rubbing the frame up front when you turn and the inner wheelhouse in the back when twisted up. With 7" wheels I think you'd need custom offset.



QUESTION: My steering is loose. How can I correct that at the knuckle?

ANSWER: The steering knuckles themselves are simple to rebuild, just a little nasty since they're packed with grease. The only new parts you need are the king pin bearings (top and bottom), a set of shims if you don't have them, and a new gasket for the knuckle. While you're in there its also a good time to do the wheel bearings if they need replacing. If I remember right, the repro shop manual covers the knuckle re-do fairly well.

Try Statewide 4WD in Phoenix - 602.944.0396. They should have everything you need to repair your sloppy steering.



QUESTION: Does any one have some sage advice on repair to the bell crank pin mounting bracket? Pin is loose due to rounding over of bracket hole by previous replacement of pin with CJ3A pin (smaller diameter, threaded and mounted with nut under radiator. I replaced this years ago with the correct pin, but it has always been loose resulting in a lot of free play at the steering wheel which is now so excessive the car will no longer pass state inspection.


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QUESTION: How can I learn the various number and letter codes on my tires and also find what I need and where to get them?

ANSWER: Here is a great tire question and answer web source...




QUESTION: Where can I get new or used NDT?


A place in Dayton, OH - Tires Unlimited - (937) 276-2115 has new NDT tires for $63.95

Hiawatha Tire [used military]
Louise - phone answerer
2-6.00 x 16"
3-6.50 x 16"
2-7.00 x 16"
$20 bucks each [11/2/98]


V and K Tire [used military]
Virgil, manager/owner ?
Ringle WI
Wausau area


B and S Tire [used military]
Lakeville, MN


Wallace Wade Tires 600x16", same as original
Wallace Wade, owner


Coker Tire, about the same price... 1-800-251-6336


Rims, new, for this same tire.

Wally's Sales

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QUESTION: I am having trouble fitting my top. Why?

ANSWER: Remember, tops should only be fitted when warm... COLD tops will NEVER FIT properly.. They need to be stretched . Perhaps the bows you have were made to fit another top, and MAY need to be adjusted ( shortened or lengthened ) BUT NOT ON A COLD TOP.. Find a car dealer who will let you put jp in over night, with the top loose. then go in on a Sat if they will let you. and fit the top, and adjust the bows. I have had good luck fitting tops that way... You will also need some support rods or what ever going from the front bow to the windshield... inserted in the black strips on the underside of the top.



QUESTION: Where can I see an excellent overview of the Dana and Spicer 18 transfer cases?

ANSWER: Off-Road.com has an excellent overview here...




QUESTION: I decided to tear the tranny and xfer apart since I had it on the bench. I also found the intermediate shaft severely spalded on one side and the bearings slightly pitted. I will replace these but now I need to know if there is something I should be looking for in the tranny as I take it apart next. Any tricks on disassembly or reassembly? The cone and roller bearings look ok, but should I replace them anyway?

ANSWER: You should have the shop manual that covers the T-90. I've read mine through about 15 times now getting ready to do the job. The first couple of times I read through it all seemed Greek. I thought "Surly someone has put together a better manual for this thing by now." I kept going through it and memorizing the illustrated parts breakdown (IPB) until I now fully understand each and every step. I have come to the conclusion that it is fairly complete and will work well if followed in the correct sequence. I planned to disassemble mine today but it seems my wife had other plans, I guess there's always tomorrow. If you don't have a manual it would be a great help to buy one.

To the rest of you already been there and done that crowd, one of the steps says to inspect the bushings and replace as necessary. I can't find any bushings in the IPB nor anyplace a bushing should go except maybe for where the countershaft and reverse gear shaft are driven in. If there were bushings there, they shouldn't be worn because the shaft doesn't rotate or move. Any added info here would be appreciated.

See this website for assistance...
http://www.off -road.com/jeep/tech/trans/t90.html

Also, I had the same question regarding the bearing in the xfer case output shaft. The one I just received from Walcks doesn't fit. Looks like I'll have to ream it a bit. I also noticed the t90 diagram in my CJ manual doesn't show this bearing, just my truck manual. Could this be because the Willys trucks, with their larger chassis and more powerful engines, are simply a hardier beast than the diminutive cj's? Just a thought.

"A. Drain the lubricant and clean the outside of the case with cleaning solvent." Good idea to get the case as clean as possible to keep as much dirt and grime out as you can.

"B. Remove the shift housing and gasket from the top of the transmission." The instructions on the shift housing assembly stop here. As I figure out how to disassemble it, I will post to let you know.

"C. If the transfer case is attached, separate it from the transmission as outlined in Par. K-3." I didn't have to do this because mine had the model 20 transfer case that comes right off.

"D. Remove the three screws and washers attaching the front main drive gear bearing retainer to the transmission. Remove the retainer and gasket." Straight forward with no difficulty. However these screws were twelve point high torque bolts on mine. If all I had were 6 point sockets I would have had difficulty.

"E. Remove the two socket-head screws from the front end of the transmission case. These screws support the oil collector inside the case." These were also 12 point and are counter sunk. The guy that was in here last completely buried them with RTV.

"F. Tap lightly on the front end of the countershaft to loosen the lockplate. Remove the lock plate and from the slots cut into the rear ends of the countershaft and reverse idler shaft." No go sports fans. It was easy to tap the countershaft back enough for it to release the lock plate but the reverse idle shaft was a nightmare to get tapped back. I was finally able to get a small brass hammer down inside the case and about 35 blows later (very short throw) I was able to move the reverse idler back enough the release the plate.

"G. Using special tool No. W-166 or a brass drift, drive the countershaft toward the rear of the case and remove it. The countershaft gear set will drop to the bottom of the transmission case. If the special tool is used, the needle bearings will remain in the countershaft gear hub and the gears and bearings may later be removed as an assembly." As was expected this is all true. I drove out the counter shaft (not much force needed) and the countershaft gear set and bearings fell to the bottom.

"H. Remove the mainshaft rear bearing adapter." There was no way this was going to happen without a gear puller. The bearing adapter was baked on tight as could be. I opted to leave it in place and just attempt to pull the mainshaft out with the bearing adapter in place.

"I. Remove the mainshaft from the case. The mainshaft assembly with the gears still in place may be removed through the rear bearing adapter opening" I was able to accomplish this with the rear bearing adapter still mounted on the mainshaft. When you remove the mainshaft the pilot roller bearings will fall out and into the bottom of the case. Collect them up so they will not be lost. I later removed the rear bearing and bearing adapter by standing the mainshaft up on end and sliding the first/reverse gear up and down on the shaft. The tapping against the bearing drove it down and off of the shaft. The bearing and adapter must later be separated by removing the retaining ring. This could have been done before, allowing the adapter alone to be removed but you would still be stuck with the bearing on the shaft.

"J. Drive the main gear into the case enough top remove the . Remove the oil collector." Stop! Do not drive the main gear into the case until you remove the outside bearing snap ring. If you do you will be driving the snap ring into the front surface of the case. After you remove the snap ring (This is the large one of the outside not the small one on the inside of the bearing) drive the gear into the case just enough to move the oil collector out of the way. My oil collector could not be removed with main drive gear installed.

"K. Remove the main drive gear." Once the oil collector is moved out of the way you can slide the gear out through the front. You can not remove it from the rear. Now I was able to remove the oil collector.

"L. Remove the counter shaft gear set and the three thrust washers. Remove the needle bearings, and spacer from the assembly." Mine was missing the last thrust washer. There should be a total of 88 needle bearings, one spacer, six bearing group separator washers and three thrust washers.

"M. Remove the reverse idler shaft and gear by driving the shaft into the case using a brass drift." This was where it got ugly. Either my tranny is different or they (The books authors) made a huge mistake here. I was able to drive the reverse idler shaft about halfway forward through the reverse idler gear before it froze up solid. It took me about two hours with that little brass hammer to pound this shaft back out the other way. Turns out my idler shaft is larger of the rear end than it is on the front side. As it turns out my reverse idler gear's bushing is buggered up pretty bad. Not because of the pounding (although I'm sure that didn't help) but because of some small metal parts that collected inside. For those of you that don't believe in putting a magnet on the bottom I think you should think it through again. I don't know if I can change just the bushing or if I will have to change the whole gear.

When I worked on my T-90, I got a small parts kit that included six rings that bracket the rollers. My tranny originally had only four instead of six. There were no rings against the spacer. The service manual (written in '56) said older transmissions had four and that they should be updated to 6 when they are serviced. Deciding to use all six, I had to get a new, every so slightly shorter, spacer. Luckily my local Jeep shop had it, so it didn't introduce more than a couple hour delay in my rebuild.

I didn't have to "drive it out". It all came out without any unusual effort. Sorry to hear yours is stuck in the cluster.



QUESTION: How can I get my roller bearing to fit? It's too tight?

ANSWER: The center of my roller bearings fit very tight on the shaft. So tight in fact that they would normally have to be pressed on. I used an old USAF bearing installation trick (I'm not claiming we invented it, just used it). I put the main shaft in the freezer (lubed first) and heated the bearing in the hot sun (I finally found a use for San Antonio heat). After about an hour I installed the hot bearing on the cold shaft. The first time I did it, I didn't heat the bearing. About half way down it matched the cold of the shaft and contracted around the shaft. Stuck solidly in place. Even heated you must put the bearing all the way on the first try or it will stick in place. Do not heat the bearings with a torch as this can burn the grease and leave carbon deposits in the bearings. I guess those of you living in the Arctic Wastelands could heat the bearing in Momma's oven at around 130 degrees. Just don't let her catch you.



QUESTION: Does anybody know if anybody manufactures a tool to hold the yoke on the out put of a transfer case. Or is it something you have to fabricate for yourself? If any body can give me a manufacture name I would appreciate it.

ANSWER: If you mean a tool to hold the yoke in place while loosen and tighten the nut, I used a 16" pipe wrench. Then I got smart and hauled the whole thing over to someone with an air ratchet and zip they were off without even trying to hold it in place. If you are after a correct torque specification this would not be practical for installation. The pipe wrench worked fine for that. If you don't want little nick marks on it, slide two thin stips of tin in between the jaws and the yoke.

You could also make a holder from a thick strip of bar steel or even angle iron. You could drill two holes in it to match those on the yoke and bolt it on. I hope this helps.



QUESTION: Where can I read about rebuilding my Spicer 18 Transfer Case?

ANSWER: See this site...




QUESTION: How can you tell the difference between a model 18 and a model 20 transfer case?

ANSWER: The way you can tell is that the rear driveshaft exits the t-case in the normal way (directly behind the transmission)instead of the model 18 way where the front and rear driveshafts are lined up.

I remember reading somewhere that the big hole model 18 and model 20 used the same case.



QUESTION: Are all output bearing retainers alike?

ANSWER: They differ. Here is an explanation:

-There are some differences in rear output bearing retainers. In looking things over I thought I had messsed up something and covered over the hole in the casting for the oil feed. Taking it apart I found that the one I was using has a much smaller hole that the shims or the other retainer I have. I don't think it's an issue as this is at the bottom of the xfer so there will be plenty of oil in this area, just something to file away. By the way, the one with the small hole came from an xfer w/out an e-brake and the one with the larger hole came with an e-brake.

-I didn't use the gasket for the rear bearing retainer. With all of the shims I doubt that it would make much of a difference. I relied rather on the use of head gasket sealer between all of the shims, we'll see -- I may be pulling out the RTV if this area starts to leak. I also found that getting the shaft endplay set right was quite a chore, it's best left until you have time and patience. This was another reason I didn't want to use the gasket. I would have ended up compressing it multiple times before I got the number of shims right.

-I didn't use the wooden dowl technique for inserting the intermediate shaft. I didn't need it which was just as well as I don't like the idea of wood bits in my bearings. By lining the gear with bearing grease all the bearings stayed in place until I got to the last bearing which I had to gently snap into place holding the rest in position just like a keystone. I had one bearing left over, and had no problems with bearings falling out while I moved the gear around counting bearings. It turned out Walck sent me one too many. I had the case on the bench, on it's side and was able to move the gear into position, place the thrust washers, and slide the the shaft down through the hole.

-I didn't replace the lockout detent ball between the shift rails. In case you don't know this will now allow 2 wheel drive, low range. This puts all the torque to the rear so care needs to be taken not to be too heavy on the throttle with this option. I'll be curious if I ever actually find it useful.

-I had reported earlier that I messed up the replacement shift rail oil seals. I had hyper extended them when inserting the rails and the springs on the backside popped off. I ordered some more from Walck and he sent a different variety that look nice. They have a metal jacket on the backside as well and a material that looks more neoprene like than rubber. I also found that using a file to campfer the edges of the notches in the shift rails helps them to move passed the seals without catching.

-My original xfer had square drive bolts and safety wire holding the shift forks to the rails. The replacement had allen socket set screws. I used the square drives with LocTite and some safety wire from a co-worker who races cars (the 'real' safety wire was much easier to use than any bailing wire I would have boughten...it would be worth looking for a race shop to get some).

-I did not replace the bushing inside the front end of the rear ouput shaft as it only had .003" of play (I was told that .002" was the spec). My original xfer had lot's of slop... enough that measuring it would have only been academic.

-I still haven't closed the issue with the speedometer gear. All my cases have 6 tooth drive gears. There exist a 4 tooth gear, apparently. Swapping these requires removeal of the the rear bearing retainer. I hope to be able to get the ratio I need with the options for the driven gear, which can be changed without opening up the case, or using an external adapter.

-I was told that the output shaft seals I got were the good ones because they have some red stuff on the outside that creates a seal against the case and therefore I don't need the felt seals that I was also sent. Time will tell though I'll probably use the felt seals as well.



QUESTION: Where can I read an excellent overview on my T-90 transmission?

ANSWER: Off-Road.com has an excellent page about this at...




QUESTION: Can I drive in low range in 2WD?

ANSWER 1: From the 'Jeep' UNIVERSAL SERIES SERVICE MANUAL A built in interlock prevents shifting into low range, 2-wheel drive.

ANSWER 2: Yes, if the interlock pin is removed from the transfer. BUT, doing this doubles the torque to the rear wheels, and if not used carefully, and especially if done with stock axles and a bigger, more powerful engine, can wreak havoc on the rear axle. Others will know more, so you might want to wait for more info and compile it all into one answer.



QUESTION: My tranny or transfer case makes a hideous noise in 3rd gear. It only does it when I'm cruising. If I romp on the gas or let off the gas, it's quiet. Is that normal? I've been told by a few Willys owners that this is normal with the old transfer cases. But it doesn't seem right to me. Also, it pops out of 2nd gear when I let off the gas. Do I need a new transfer case? If so, which ones will interchange? How can I identify the one I have?

ANSWER: Noise: check intermediate shaft bearings and intermediate shaft, they are probably worn. In order to do this you need to remove the drain pan or inspection cover (it's harder to do through the inspection cover but less messy) on t-case grab the intermediate gear and push it up & down. Before I rebuilt mine there was almost 1/8" play. Cost about $10 for the shaft and 20 for the bearings. It can be replaced with the t-case in the vehicle.

2nd gear - Need new synchronizer rings most likely. There is also the off chance that the popet balls and springs are shot in the shift tower. The popets are easy to test, with the vehicle off and not moving check to see if the gear selector is too easy to move out of 2nd. If it's the syncro rings (most likely) you need to take the whole top end apart - might as well replace all the bearings while you're at it. $20 at JC Whitney gets you new syncro rings, plates and springs. Another 20 gets you the small parts kit (bearings, gaskets, thrust washers).

Had the same problem with my 47 cj2a jumping out of 2nd gear when I let off the gas, even after replacing the syncro rings poppets and bearings Had to tear it apart again and replace the 2nd gear assy the splines where the slider engaged the gear were worn down and wouldn't stay engaged. This may not be the problem but should be looked at to save yourself a second rebuild.

If you would like additional information on checking your t-case check-out my page devoted to rebuilding of this old box of gears @


The front main bearing is subject to a little more wear than the rear main bearing as it is being subjected to more heat from being up next to the engine and is turning at a faster rate than the rear main bearing when the transmission is being operated in a less than a 1 to 1 ratio. However, its design is such that it should not fail under normal usage if the rest of the transmission is all right. A bad input bearing or shaft and a bad pilot bearing are just some of the things that may cause a front main bearing to fail. Poor lubrication would be the main reason. A loose fit at the input/output shaft will also cause the transmission to pop out of gear. When they get that bad, alot of stuff probably needs replacing.



QUESTION: What is an "oil collector" on the T-90 transfer case?

ANSWER: The oil collector is a small plate in the bottom of the T90 (about $10 from 4wd Hardware catalog) I think it redirects the oil splash towards the front of the main shaft. It is secured with 2 Allen bolts and wraps around the side of the input shaft gear and cluster.

Oil collector is and [ was] only intended to slow the gears down when the clutch is engaged. It acts as a hydraulic brake, catching oil at top, running down the side of tranny and shooting it onto gears in opposite direction of travel , like a funnel, from what the old say, didn't work too well.



QUESTION: Where can I see some drawings of the transmission and transfer case on the CJ-2A; CJ-3A; CJ-3B; CJ-5 and CJ-6?

ANSWER: Here are the drawings out of the manual, on Derik Redmonds web page.






There's a bearing/bushing where the front output shaft goes inside the rear output shaft. I've a replacement, and my Chilton's manual says that I need to have the new one reamed to size but it gives so clearance specs. I'm hoping one of you with an original manual has that number.

I also noticed that the same Chilton manual (this is the large book for '61-'70 Trucks) mentions the safety wire on the shift fork bolts. I've two xfers, one with square head bolts and safety wire, one with Allen set screws. I only mention this since this went around a while back. I'm still trying to decide if I want to go with the safety wire or the set screws and Loktite.

ANSWER: Bearing bushing - don't know, when I put mine back together I used the existing one, as there didn't seem to be excess play and it spun freely - 4wd hardware does sell the bushings though.

My Willys service manual doesn't give a clearance, it only lists the ID as 0.627". If the front shaft is 5/8" that would give you 2 thous clearance.

Safety wire - I think I was the one who started this the last time, my t-case had hex head bolts on the front and rear "cones" and square bolts for the shift forks all drilled for safety wire. I used both Locktite and safety wire (overkill maybe but what does it hurt).

On my Spicer 18 I took my two shafts and bearing down to a machine shop and let them do put the bearing in. It was too tight to insert without a press and was also in need of resizing. Funny thing I noticed was there wasn't that much difference by feel from the old one. On my forks only the "hi-low" fork had a wire through the square bolt. The front output fork bolt didn't.



QUESTION: I'm back to work on the 47 and have the transmission and transfer case on the bench. First question: Here are all the numbers, what do they mean and is this original? On the tranny left side T90A1 2; Small plate on left side 7 15 47; Top of tranny by shifter cover 19 and H2071. Plate on top of the xfer case, ser. no j125475,low gear ______, model 18.

ANSWER: Sounds original. Manufacture date is 7/15/47 and its a Spicer 18.



QUESTION : The oil was relatively clean and there was minimal gunk in the xfer case pan. There was no real noise or any popping out of gears, although I drove it only a few miles between buying it and tearing it apart. Tell me what the best procedure is from here. There are no chipped gears, but it does seem to leak some oil. Is it possible to replace the seals without tearing the whole thing apart? Is there something I should look for inside. I have the manual, and am very good at following directions and know how to get to the transmission shop when I have all the parts scattered around the shop.

ANSWER: If you want to replace the seals some people have had luck getting the old one out some how with the t-case together and using something called a Vernco 2000 [A wooded gadget someone on the WT list made and sent, free, to people on the list who wanted one] to put the new seals in. Personally, mine came out in little tiny pieces after a couple hours of busting them up with a seal puller (t-case completely apart). With it on the bench it is relatively simple to remove the front cone and rear speedo section which makes it easier to get the seals out.



QUESTION: I plan on putting a lockout on my PTO lever to be sure that it doesn't get engaged accidentally. If the winch clutch is engaged that might get a wee nasty real fast. How can I do that?

SIMILAR STORY: You are right about the accidental winch engaged. We had a M-49 Fuel Truck that some one went to use to refuel a M-35 with and when they went to engage the PTO (which also runs the fuel pumps) to dispense fuel the winch was engaged and we ended up replacing the bumber, winch, grille guard and radiator just for major parts. It wasn't a pretty picture, and very costly lesson.

ANSWER 1: If you don't have a shifter boot installed, it would be relatively easy to install a lock out bar across the hole. It could pivot of one side and be pined with a ball lock pin on the other. When you wanted to use the PTO you could pull the pin and rotate the bar out of the way. I included a quick drawing of what I'm talking about.

ANSWER 2: The idea's rather simple, a small bracket with a pin that holds the lever in the unengaged position. I can imagine several ways to do this. The simplest is a small bar that flips down behind the lever. There's a hundred different retaining pins out there. I can't think of the name of it but the one I like has a small ball in the end and a button in the handle, push the button to allow the ball to fall into the pin so it can be removed through the hole (some socket wrenches use this). I could also come up with some rather complicated but fun-to-design mechanisms but in the end I usually find the most elegant solutions to be the simple one, cleanly executed.

ANSWER 3: I too was concerned about the lever accidentally being engaged . My solution to the problem was to install a hinged hasp, at 90 degrees, across the back side of the lever to keep it from moving. The hasp I used was about 1 1/4 inches wide and about 4 inches long. I bolted it down to the floor board so that the bolts are covered with the hasp when in the "locked" position To move the PTO lever, I have to lift the hasp and rotate it out of the way. The weight of the hasp keeps it in place in the locked position. To improve the mechanical advantage of the hasp, I turned down the end of the hasp so that it rides up on the lever about 1/2 inch. The "lock" has been in place for about 20 years and has never let me down.

ANSWER 4: The M-38 PTO setup included a lockout that bolted on to the floor. It has a Y shaped arm on a honge that when in the lock position would go around the PTO lever and hold it in the forward position. Flat Fenders Forever [flat fenders # is 207-465-7526] in Maine makes a great repro.



QUESTION: Where can I find used jps or jp parts on-line?

ANSWER: Off-Road.Com has both listed here...

Searchable vehicles for sale...

Searchable parts for sale...



QUESTION: Is there one written source (hopefully, a book) on early jeep history, which you could recommend?

ANSWER: Depends on what you mean by early history. If you want to know about its development, the best book by far is "Jeep: Its Development and Procurement Under Quartermaster Corps 1940-42" by Herbert Rifkind. This is chockful of accurate information. If you want a tainted history slanted toward Willys, then "Hail to the Jeep" by A.W. Wells. Not always accurate and downplayed Bantam and Ford's contributions. "Hail to the Jeep" was written in 1946 and probably is the main basis where most of today's books draw on for their interpretation of history. If you want early civilian history, you will have to wait awhile. Fred is writing one on the civilian prototypes and the CJ-2A. Over the last year I have been reviewing chapters for him for his book and it will bring out some of the lost tidbits that have been uncovered recently. Quite a few little surprises that people will find interesting. Stay tuned for this book. Todd Paisley - CJML

Check this history document out...
Jeep History



QUESTION: Does anybody have any suggestions for keeping an old jeep from being stolen?

ANSWERS: What I'm doing with mine is fabricate a boot for around the clutch or brake pedal so they can not be pushed in, Chains are to easy to cut and the electrical system is so simple it is just too easy to hot wire it to rely on anything like that.

A electrical cut-off switch would work if you hide it in a good spot. JC Wittless has these.

When I drove mine back in school, I used a bike cable locked to the right rear leg of the drivers seat. I would park it and turn the wheel to its stop and then lock the loose end to the steering wheel. You could also remove the coil/distributor wire.

You can do it the way that the military jeeps did in the past and that is put a piece of chain thru the steering wheel and have the other end fastened to the floor (bolted, welded, ect.) and just use a padlock to secure it.

Another trick is to remove the rotor, I use this method when I bring my jeep to school. How many people keep a spare rotor for a jeep in their pocket?

Make a "Touch Connector": It's a connector that can be wired to something like a screw on the dash or the back of a rivet head. It works like this. Unless you have grounded the system by placing your finger of thumb on this item the starter won't turn over. It's simple in it's operation in that no-one knows (or picks up) that as you turn the key you lean forward with your hand on that important part of the dash.

I read an article in one of these four-wheel-drive magazines that a reader had posted a while back. This individual said that he used to remove his coil wire when leaving his Jeep unattended until one day when it was stolen. Apparently the thief had used the #1 sparkplug wire as a coil wire and drove off with the remaining cylinders firing away. The guy further stated that he now uses a dummy wire comprised of vacuum hose and spark plug boots to play the role of the coil wire. Now, when the thief pops the hood, he or she will see nothing out of the ordinary.

I have an electric fuel pump which makes it very easy to put cut-off switch in the electric line. Go buy some wire and two toggle switches (I use two toggles so if they find one switch, they probably won't know there is a second hidden somewhere). A similar method will work well with the coil too. Heck, it costs no more than $15 and a little cleverness to hide the toggles.

You could disconnect you the coil wire and just place it on the coil, if someone got it started and would drive away the first bump would render the ignition useless.

You could install a fuel cut-off valve somewhere it would run for a minute and then mysteriously die on the thief.

Do it like the military. On the older trucks we had a length of chain welded to the body that would reach the steering wheel so you could pad lock it around one of the spokes. The HMMV had an aluminum body so they took a different approach. They put a tube under the dash next to the steering column and put a plastic coated steel cable thru the tube with a loop on the end. the bottom side of the cable was fixed so it would not pull out of the tube. You just pulled the cable out and locked it on the steering wheel. I like the cable & tube setup better. Neater & keeps the cable out of the way when not in use.

I never had need to find out if it worked, but I wired my Mico-Lock (brakeline electric solenoid) to the coil power, through a switch on the dash that was "on" when the handle was down. If someone started the Jeep and drove away, the brakes would stay on after their first stop.

One simple method of theft protection is to drill a hole in your clutch and brake pedals and put a bicycle lock through the holes. It doesn't completely disable the vehicle, but sure makes it difficult to drive. :)

I wired my Mico-Lock (brakeline electric solenoid) to the coil power, through a switch on the dash that was "on" when the handle was down. If someone started the Jeep and drove away, the brakes would stay on after their first stop.

This is one of my favorite methods as the rig starts right up and away they drive only to end up in traffic or some conspicuous place with it stalled. Being the cowardly scum that they are the thief will probably just leave it there rather than risk it. Of course this means your baby is in the middle of the road, but at least it's not too far away. This may not work in the hills or areas of less traffic density where they'll take the time to figure it out (I'm mostly worried about leaving my rig at trail heads).

Professional thieves know all about commercial alarms and standard techniques and will easily bypass these (like the coil wire technique). Thus I prefer a home built system. I was going to attach a schematic of a circuit posted to thejeeptech list a while back but couldn't find it that is similar to Ben's idea (as usual Ben get's the prize for simple elegance). This used an ignition cutoff circuit with a magnetic relay. Use a magnetic note clip on the outside of the dash to activate it. Move the magnet a few inches and the rig won't start. Nobody would think twice about a magnetic note holder (some note helps the realism) on a steel dash.

Don't forget as well that many pro thieves use a tow truck and just haul the rig away on a flatbed.

This starter disable device seems to be elegantly simple and very effective. I think I am going to install this on all my vehicles. It will pay for its self in insurance discounts, so why not (15-20%).


Here's my suggestion on vehicle security, get a sprint car type steering wheel disconnect from summit racing, they have the pin or pinnless type which makes it easy to take your steering wheel with you, this will only work if you are willing to give up your stock steering wheel. Cost is under $40 (+$30 for a modern greyhound steering wheel) . Lets see somebody try to steer a cj with a vice grips :)

Just unbolt the nut that holds the steering wheel in place and remove it when you are not in the vehicle. When my 3B is operational, I just walk around with my steering wheel. You get funny looks but anyone who owns a classic Jeep knows what you are doing.

I once had my daughters riding with me in my 48 CJ2A. We went to turn a curve and the wheel turned but the steering didn't because the nut had backed off just a fraction. We went off the road and took out a big wooden sign. Nobody was injured but it proved to me the importance of having that nut good and tight.

I used to be a repossessor in Chicago area and one of the best one's I saw was a man that had wired his ignition into a seat belt buzzer. That way the car would not start without having the seat belt on. There's not a thief in the world that will put a seat belt on when stealing a car, plus it also then makes sure that you don't forget.



QUESTION: Is the word "Willys" or "Willys Overland" currently copyrighted/trademarked? Unlike "Jeep", are we free to use "Willys"?

ANSWER: I don't know about copyrighted, but there is a company named Willys-Overland Motors in Toledo Ohio. They advertise that they sell a lot of NOS stuff that was purchased from the overruns etc at the Toledo factory. Matter of fact, they've got a 1/2 page ad in JP's May issue (just got it), advertising some NOS tailgates for CJ-7s, wagon/pickup windshield channel, etc. (BTW good issue of JP, it's chocked full of old Jeeps).

Trademark law regarding companies that have ceased operations is a legal quagmire. You have to maintain continuity of use to keep the trademark protected, and Willys has not been used on an ongoing basis. And there are many parts makers and publications that use the word Willys without licensing it from anyone.

The NOS company now known as Willys-Overland complicates matters further. The new (post-78) law is life + 75 years. Before that, it was a flat 50 years from the registration (rather initial or later). The question thus becomes when it was last registered?

As with many such issues the answer is not clear and if it actually reached litigation might go either way, in my opinion. I'm not an attorney but I suspect that they would waffle on the answer, too.

As an aside, I have heard that the parts and service manuals are no longer under copyright protection. I don't know this for sure, though.



QUESTION: How can I find old jeeps if I want to buy one?


1. Tell everybody you talk to that you like old jeeps (better to say old cars, cause that includes jeeps, and the friend or acquaintance usually doesn't make a big distinction) (I mean I've never been to a party where I've overheard, above the roar of the music, "Yea, my friend is looking for an early 46, column shift with combat wheels in Tan, low miles, uncut, runner/driver. Hey, can you pass the dip?").

The idea is to spread the word, then wait. Older people are better than young people, because they usually have more friends. Women are great, because they usually make all the decisions, and jeeps irritate them to no end. "If you don't get that piece of crap out of here, I'm gonna divorce you and take the kids to my mother's house." or "You'll never finish it, I'm getting rid of it."

It's always useful to have a few gear heads as friends, their lives revolve around cars and they may stumble across a jeep every now and then.

2. Drive into the mountains/rural areas, look in peoples' back yards (don't get shot). Take a camera, take some pictures. (I've only used this method to 'spot' the jeeps, never to take one in the wild.) Pin the pictures to your lapel. That way everyone you meet will know that you are a jeep guy and are a little strange. (that's a joke).

Some not only spot jeeps by driving in rural areas, but have gone to the door and asked about buying them, only to walk away with terrific deals. It works. Some will "mark" those jeep in their GPSs [Global Positioning Systems] and tell their friends where to find them.

3, If you are in a hurry and want to pay more, search the advertisements. There are always plenty of guys looking to make some quick money to feed their habit.

4. I think the best way if I was looking would be to talk to someone who owns one. Most Jeep owners I have talked to know who else has what in their area, and probably know who might have what for sale and at what general price. Many times I've just approached another owner talk Jeeps, and have always found people more than happy to share information.

[CJML - Ed Bee, Doug Skinner, and others]

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McNeilus Auto & Truck Parts 1-800-722-9318

Walck's 610-852-3110.

Midway Supply Co.
Post Office Box 153185
Irving TX 75015

Four Wheel Drive Hardware
44488 State Route 14
P.O. Box 57
Columbiana, OH 44408-0057
USA/Canada 1-800-333-5535
Int'l 1-330-482-4924 or 1-330-482-5560
Fax 1-330-482-5035

Gary or Louie
Farmington, MN

Brian's 4wdParts & Literature
428 North Harbor Street
Branford, CT 06405

Links to everything for Jeeps

Leo Porter
Midway Supply Co
709 Valley View Lane
Irving TX, 75015

Beachwood Canvas Works
39 Lake Ave
PO Box 137
Island Heights, NJ USA 08732
(732) 929-3168 FAX (732) 929-3479

On-Line list of parts sources:

Flat Fenders Forever 1-207-465-7526

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Here is a fine list to begin with...

(yet another broken link - if you where it went email me)


Where to find manuals and books:

http://www.amazon.com Amazon.com
Mvpa - Military Vehicles Preservation Association
Turner 4Wheel Drive
Bob Johnson Auto Literature


QUESTION: What do you think of the Chilton manuals?

ANSWER: I have found that Chilton's usually tells you what you already know. The larger size Chiltons manual (8.5 x 11) that I bought for my 63 CJ5 is a little more more useful than the smaller versions but it does span a broad range of years and can be limited in its' usefullness for your model. It does have some good pictures. In my experiences with Chilton's I have found a lot of misprints and editing errors. You might try to find one that is open so you can browse through before you buy. I think Haynes is a little better. Like anything, you get what you pay for.

I use a Chilton's manual in my garage, but only as a supplement to the Jeep shop manual.

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If you have a question that you would like answered and kept in this FAQ,
submit your question with the answer to this editor [Richard N. Meagley Sr. , Ric@MightyMo.org]


Though it was more or less a humble Falcon beneath its sporty skin, Ford's new Mustang still looked like nothing ever seen before when it burst onto the scene in April 1964. More than 417,000 were sold within a year, a new Detroit record. Bucket seats and a floor shifter were standard, and either six-cylinder or 289-cid V-8 power was available under that long hood. Ford's K-code High Performance 289, rated at 271 horsepower, remained the hottest optional engine up through 1966.

Unveiled right after the so-called “1964½” run morphed into the traditional 1965 model year, the even sportier 2+2 fastback pushed the Mustang's body count to three, joining the carryover coupe and convertible. Another choice offered in all three shapes, the Mustang GT, debuted in April 1965 to help mark the first birthday of a new genre called the “pony car”. Various details set a 1965 Mustang apart from its 1964½ predecessor. The easiest to remember was Ford's switch from archaic generator to a modern alternator.

Dearborn's pony car was redesigned for 1967, primarily to make more room up front for an optional big-block V-8. Though the 271-hp 289 “Hi Po” small-block remained available for one last year, it was overshadowed by the 390-cid FE-series big-block, rated at 320 horsepower. Also new for 1967 was the “GTA,” an automatic transmission variation on the continuing GT theme. The GT/GTA segregation was enacted for one year only. All were simply called GTs again, regardless of transmission choice, in 1968.

Making more headlines in April 1968 was Ford's announcement of a new engine option. The 335-hp 428 Cobra Jet V-8 was a big-block bully that vaulted the Mustang to the forefront of Detroit's muscle car race. Hot Rod magazine called the '68½ CJ Mustang “the fastest regular production sedan ever built.” Available as a coupe, fastback or convertible, the venomous 428 Cobra Jet Mustang was available through 1970.

Ford unveiled another restyle in 1969, but it was lost in the shadows of three new models: the Mach 1, Boss 302 and Boss 429. Various competition-style appearance items and the GT-handling suspension were standard for the Mach 1, with engine options including the 351-cid small-block, 390 big-block or 428 Cobra Jet. Two race-ready Boss V-8s, the 302-cid small block and 429-cid big block were predictably the hearts of other two hot-to-trot pony cars. The Boss 302 produced 290 horsepower, and its 429 cube big brother made 375 horses.

Handling was the main strength of the Boss 302, which was created to take on Chevrolet's Z/28 Camaro on SCCA Trans-Am road courses. The idea behind the big, bad Boss 429 involved homologating its exotic V-8 for NASCAR tracks, where it did its darndest beneath mid-sized Talladega hoods. Both Boss Mustangs were built through 1970. Boss 302 production was 1,628 in 1969 and 7,013 in 1970. Boss 429 numbers were 857 in 1969 and 499 in 1970.

Purists who were annoyed at the enlarged 1967 Mustang had another thing coming when Dearborn's truly large 1971 redesign appeared. Wheelbase went up an inch, overall length increased 2.1 inches, and weight ballooned by nearly 200 pounds. Under short-term Ford president Bunkie Knudsen's direction, Ford's pony car was expanded once more to make even more room up front for even more engine. New on the options list in 1971 was the 385-series big-block V-8, displacing 429 cubic inches. Advertised output for the new 429 Cobra Jet was 370 horsepower, with or without optional ram-air induction.

The sporty Mach 1 carried over, again only in fastback “SportsRoof” form, but the Boss 302 and 429 didn't. They were instead followed by the Boss 351, a 330-hp SportsRoof built for 1971 only. Boss 351 production was 1,806.

The Mach 1 remained the Mustang's flagship through 1973. Other models of note included the patriotic Sprint hardtops and SportRoofs built only for 1972, and that year's “Olympic Sprint” convertibles.

Click here to read Hemmings Motor News' Buyers Guide for the 1964 1/2-1966 Ford Mustang.


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Honestly, I expected more from you all.


The new Bugatti Chiron’s silly butt bumper pads were a great opportunity to post some of the all-time great silly US specification bumpers from supercars past, and only a few of you delivered.

So COTD goes to heeltoehero, and thanks to rcasi for following up with the car that best represents my current state:

Car insurance band 6 ukRead more!

(I kind of like the Bugatti’s implants.)


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